BUS 4474 Troy University Short Incidents for Ethical Reasoning Paper Your instructor will choose two incidents from the Short Incidents for Ethical Reasoni

BUS 4474 Troy University Short Incidents for Ethical Reasoning Paper Your instructor will choose two incidents from the Short Incidents for Ethical Reasoning that follow Ch. 8 of your textbook. After reading each incident, you must identify all relevant stakeholders and determine how they could be impacted by the decision that will be made, identify and apply at least one principle for ethical reasoning, and then consider alternative courses of action and choose the best course of action based on stakeholder impacts and the outcome of the application of the ethical principle.

Your textbook defines stakeholders as an entity that is benefited or burdened by the actions of a corporation or whose actions may benefit or burden the corporation. Some common examples of stakeholders would include customers, employees, suppliers, stockholders, and the community.

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Businesses will almost always have multiple stakeholders, and many times their interests will conflict. This means that a business decision-maker will frequently have to make a decision in the face of competing claims from different stakeholders. The question of whose interests should be prioritized requires the exercise of judgment. This skill—examining competing claims and deciding which one is the strongest—is called evaluation. You will want to consider the power, urgency, and legitimacy that each stakeholder presents.

You should put yourselves in each stakeholder’s position—Why do they care about the outcome of the decision? How will they be affected? What outcome would they prefer? What are their arguments in support of their preferred outcome? You will want to consider the power, urgency, and legitimacy that each stakeholder presents. Two of the videos below will give you a brief review of stakeholder theory and give you an idea of what skills you will be expected to demonstrate when you complete this assignment. Additionally, writing mechanics and grammar are graded as part of this assignment. A video on improving mechanics in business writing is provided below to help refresh your memory.




As a reminder, for each incident, be sure to identify all relevant stakeholders and determine how they could be impacted by the decision that will be made, identify and apply at least one principle for ethical reasoning, and then consider alternative courses of action and choose the best course of action based on stakeholder impacts and the outcome of the application of the ethical principle.


Criteria Ratings

(1) Identifies stakeholders

A: Exceeds Expectations

B: Meets Expectations

Below Expectations

(1) Identities at least one prescriptive principle of ethical conduct

(1) Applies the chosen prescriptive principle of ethical conduct

(1) Considers alternative courses of action

(1) Chooses a course of action

(1) Considers stakeholders impacts

(2) Identifies stakeholders

(2) Considers stakeholders impacts

(2) Identifies at least one prescriptive principles of ethical conduct The thirteenth edition continues a long effort to tell the story of how forces in business,
government, and society shape our world. In addition, an emphasis on management issues and
processes allows students to apply the principles they learn to real-world situations.
As always, a stream of events dictated the need for extensive revision. Accordingly, the authors
have updated the chapters to include new ideas, events, personalities, and publications, while
continuing the work of building insight into basic underlying principles, institutions, and forces.
and Society
A Managerial Perspective
Text and Cases
To learn more, visit this book’s Online Learning Center at
ISBN 978-0-07-811267-6
MHID 0-07-811267-2
780078 112676
John F. Steiner
George A. Steiner
MD DALIM #1142568 5/3/11 CYAN MAG YELO BLK
Business, Government, and Society
Text and Cases
An expanded discussion of white collar crime and criminal prosecution of both
managers and corporations in Chapter 7, “Business Ethics.”
A new section on the neural basis of ethical decisions in Chapter 8, “Making Ethical
Decisions in Business.”
An expanded discussion of lobbying ethics as well as a revised discussion of corporate money in elections and recent changes in election law in Chapter 9, “Business in
A new fifth wave, “terrorism and financial crisis,” has been added to the four historical waves of regulatory growth in Chapter 10, “Regulating Business.”
A new discussion of globalization, including the rise of the modern trading system
and coverage of various trade organizations, such as the IMF and World Bank, in
Chapter 12, “Globalization, Trade, and Corruption.”
New sections in Chapter 15, “Consumerism,” including Thoreau’s rejection of
materialism, arguments defending consumerism, and a description of the consumer
protection activities of the Federal Trade Commission.
Added emphasis on the nature and significance of diversity management programs in
corporations in Chapter 17, “Civil Rights, Women, and Diversity.”
New coverage of the story of the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy and of the new
governance reforms in the wake of the recent financial crisis in Chapter 18,
“Corporate Governance.”
A Managerial Perspective
Highlights of the Thirteenth Edition include:
Thirteenth Edition
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and Society
A Managerial Perspective,
Text and Cases
Thirteenth Edition
John F. Steiner
Professor of Management,
Emeritus California State
University, Los Angeles
George A. Steiner
Harry and Elsa Kunin
Professor of Business and
Society and Professor of
Management, Emeritus, UCLA
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Published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas,
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including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
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ISBN 978-0-07-811267-6
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Vice president and editor-in-chief: Brent Gordon
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Steiner, John F.
Business, government, and society : a managerial perspective: text and
cases / John F. Steiner, George A. Steiner.—13th ed.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-07-811267-6 (alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-07-811267-2 (alk. paper)
1. Industries—Social aspects—United States. 2. Industrial policy—United
States. 3. Social responsibility of business—United States. I. Steiner, George Albert,
1912- II. Title.
HD60.5.U5S8 2012
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We dedicate this book to the memory of
Jean Wood Steiner.
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Brief Table of Contents
PART FIVE Multinational Corporations
and Globalization
PART ONE A Framework for Studying
Business, Government, and
1 The Study of Business,
Government, and Society 1
2 The Dynamic Environment
3 Business Power
4 Critics of Business
PART TWO The Nature and
Management of Corporate
5 Corporate Social
Responsibility 121
PART THREE Managing Ethics
8 Making Ethical Decisions in
Business 238
PART FOUR Business and Government
10 Regulating Business
12 Globalization, Trade, and
Corruption 395
PART SIX Corporations and the
Natural Environment
13 Industrial Pollution and
Environmental Regulation 436
14 Managing Environmental
Quality 476
PART SEVEN Consumerism
15 Consumerism
16 The Changing Workplace
17 Civil Rights, Women, and
Diversity 585
PART NINE Corporate Governance
9 Business in Politics
PART EIGHT Human Resources
6 Implementing Corporate Social
Responsibility 157
7 Business Ethics
11 Multinational Corporations
18 Corporate Governance
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Table of Contents
A Framework for Studying Business,
Government, and Society
Chapter 1
The Study of Business, Government,
and Society 1
ExxonMobil Corporation 1
What Is the Business–Government–Society
Field? 4
Why Is the BGS Field Important to
Managers? 7
Four Models of the BGS Relationship 8
The Market Capitalism Model 9
The Dominance Model 12
The Countervailing Forces Model 15
The Stakeholder Model 16
Our Approach to the Subject Matter
Comprehensive Scope 20
Interdisciplinary Approach with a Management
Focus 20
Use of Theory, Description, and Case Studies 20
Global Perspective 21
Historical Perspective 21
Chapter 2
The Dynamic Environment
Royal Dutch Shell PLC 22
Deep Historical Forces at Work
The Industrial Revolution
Inequality 25
Population Growth 28
Technology 30
Globalization 32
Nation-States 33
Dominant Ideologies 34
Great Leadership 35
Chance 35
Six External Environments of Business
The Economic Environment 36
The Technological Environment 38
The Cultural Environment 39
The Government Environment 41
The Legal Environment 42
The Natural Environment 43
The Internal Environment 44
Concluding Observations 45
Case Study: The American Fur Company 47
Chapter 3
Business Power
James B. Duke and The American Tobacco
Company 55
The Nature of Business Power 58
What Is Power? 58
Levels and Spheres of Corporate Power 59
The Story of the Railroads 61
Two Perspectives on Business Power 64
The Dominance Theory
Pluralist Theory 71
Concluding Observations 75
Case Study: John D. Rockefeller and the
Standard Oil Trust 75
Chapter 4
Critics of Business
Mary “Mother” Jones 83
Origins of Critical Attitudes Toward
Business 86
The Greeks and Romans 86
The Medieval World 88
The Modern World 88
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vi Table of Contents
The American Critique of Business
Global Corporate Responsibility
The Colonial Era 89
The Young Nation 90
1800–1865 91
Populists and Progressives 93
Socialists 95
The Great Depression and World
War II 99
The Collapse of Confidence 100
The New Progressives 102
Global Critics
Assessing the Evolving Global CSR
System 146
Concluding Observations 146
Case Study: Jack Welch at General
Electric 147
The Story of Liberalism 104
The Rise of Neoliberalism 105
Agenda of the Global Justice
Movement 106
Global Activism 108
Chapter 6
Implementing Corporate Social
Responsibility 157
Concluding Observations 110
Case Study: A Campaign against KFC
Corporation 112
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 157
Managing the Responsive Corporation 160
Leadership and Business Models 160
A Model of CSR Implementation 162
The Nature and Management of
Corporate Responsibility
Chapter 5
Corporate Social Responsibility
Development of Norms and Principles 138
Codes of Conduct 140
Reporting and Verification Standards 142
Certification and Labeling Schemes 142
Management Standards 143
Social Investment and Lending 144
Government Actions 144
Civil Society Vigilance 145
Merck & Co., Inc. 121
The Evolving Idea of Corporate Social
Responsibility 123
Social Responsibility in Classical Economic
Theory 125
The Early Charitable Impulse 125
Social Responsibility in the Late Nineteenth and
Early Twentieth Centuries 127
1950 to the Present 129
Basic Elements of Social Responsibility 131
General Principles 133
Are Social and Financial Performance
Related? 134
Corporate Social Responsibility in a Global
Context 135
The Problem of Cross-Border Corporate
Power 136
The Rise of New Global Values 137
CSR Review 163
CSR Strategy 167
Implementation of CSR Strategy 168
Reporting and Verification 171
How Effectively Is CSR Implemented?
Corporate Philanthropy 175
Patterns of Corporate Giving 175
Strategic Philanthropy 177
Cause Marketing 179
New Forms of Philanthropy 181
Concluding Observations 183
Case Study: Marc Kasky versus
Nike 183
Managing Ethics
Chapter 7
Business Ethics
Bernard Ebbers 194
What Are Business Ethics? 197
Two Theories of Business Ethics 198
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Table of Contents vii
Major Sources of Ethical Values in
Business 200
Religion 201
Philosophy 202
Cultural Experience
Law 206
Factors That Influence Managerial
Ethics 212
Leadership 212
Strategies and Policies 214
Corporate Culture 215
Individual Characteristics 218
How Corporations Manage
Ethics 220
Ethics and Compliance Programs: An
Assessment 227
Concluding Observations 228
Case Study: The Trial of Martha
Stewart 229
Chapter 8
Making Ethical Decisions in
Business 238
David Geffen 238
Principles of Ethical Conduct
The Categorical Imperative 241
The Conventionalist Ethic 242
The Disclosure Rule 243
The Doctrine of the Mean 244
The Ends–Means Ethic 244
The Golden Rule 245
The Intuition Ethic 246
The Might-Equals-Right Ethic 246
The Organization Ethic 247
The Principle of Equal Freedom 248
The Proportionality Ethic 248
The Rights Ethic 249
The Theory of Justice 249
The Utilitarian Ethic 251
Reasoning with Principles 251
Character Development 253
The Neural Basis of Ethical
Decisions 253
Probing Ethical Decisions 254
Emotions and Intuition 256
Practical Suggestions for Making Ethical
Decisions 257
Concluding Observations 259
Case Studies: Short Incidents for Ethical
Reasoning 260
Tangled Webs 264
Business and Government
Chapter 9
Business in Politics
Paul Magliocchetti and Associates 271
The Open Structure of American
Government 275
A History of Political Dominance by
Business 277
Laying the Groundwork 277
Ascendance, Corruption, and Reform 278
Business Falls Back under the New Deal 280
Postwar Politics and Winds of Change 281
The Rise of Antagonistic Groups 282
Diffusion of Power in Government 283
The Universe of Organized Business
Interests 284
Lobbying 287
Lobbying Methods 288
Power and Limits 290
Regulation of Lobbyists 291
The Corporate Role in Elections
Efforts to Limit Corporate Influence 294
The Federal Election Campaign Act 295
Political Action Committees 296
Soft Money and Issue Advertising 298
Reform Legislation in 2002 299
How Business Dollars Enter
Elections 301
Concluding Observations 303
Case Study: Citizens United v. Federal
Election Commission 304
Chapter 10
Regulating Business
The Federal Aviation Administration
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viii Table of Contents
Why Government Regulates Business
Flaws in the Market 319
Social and Political Reasons for Regulation
Waves of Growth
Criticism of the Global Compact
Ascent and Inertia
The Regulatory Burden 337
Benefits of Regulations 339
Regulation in Other Nations 340
Concluding Observations 342
Case Study: Good and Evil on the
Rails 342
Chapter 11
Multinational Corporations
The Coca-Cola Company 352
The Multinational Corporation
The Rise and Fall of Trade 402
A New Postwar Order 404
Success and Evolution 404
The World Trade Organization 406
Regional Trade Agreements 409
Free Trade versus Protectionism
Multinational Corporations and
A Statistical Perspective 356
How Transnational Is a Corporation? 358
Breaking the Bonds of Country: Weatherford
International 359
Chapter 12
Globalization, Trade, and
Corruption 395
Costs and Benefits of Regulation
FDI in Developing Economies
Concluding Observations 383
Case Study: Union Carbide Corporation and
Bhopal 384
McDonald’s Corporation
Globalization 397
Regulatory Statutes 327
Rulemaking 329
Presidential Oversight 332
Congressional Oversight 334
Challenges in the Courts 335
Foreign Direct Investment
The Alien Tort Claims Act
Why Free Trade? 411
Why Protectionism? 412
The Politics of Protectionism 413
Free Trade Responses to Protectionism 415
U.S. Deviation from Free Trade Policy 416
Tariff Barriers in Other Countries 416
A Spectrum of Corruption 418
The Fight Against Corruption 420
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 422
Corporate Actions to Fight Corruption 425
Concluding Observations 426
Case Study: David and Goliath at the
WTO 427
Corporations and the Natural
International Codes of Conduct 367
The OECD Guidelines for Multinational
Enterprises 369
How the OECD Guidelines Work
Vedanta Resources 371
The Drummond Company on Trial
Wave 1: The Young Nation 321
Wave 2: Confronting Railroads and Trusts 322
Wave 3: The New Deal 323
Wave 4: Administering the Social
Revolution 324
Wave 5: Terrorism and Financial Crisis 325
War Blips 327
How Regulations Are Made
The United Nations Global Compact
Chapter 13
Industrial Pollution and
Environmental Regulation
The Majestic Hudson River
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Table of Contents ix
Human Health 439
The Biosphere 440
Industrial Activity and Sustainability
Ideas Shape Attitudes Toward the
Environment 444
New Ideas Challenge the Old
In Defense of Consumerism
The Consumer’s Protective Shield
Principal Areas of Environmental Policy
Air 448
Water 458
Land 459
Concluding Observations 463
Case Study: A World Melting Away
The Commerce Railyards 476
Regulating Environmental Risk 479
Analyzing Human Health Risks 479
Risk Assessment 480
Risk Management 486
Command-and-Control Regulation 491
Market Incentive Regulation 492
Voluntary Regulation 498
Managing Environmental Quality
Environmental Management Systems
A Range of Actions 501
Product Liability
Concluding Observations 538
Case Study: Alcohol Advertising
Human Resources
Chapter 16
The Changing Workplace
Advantages 488
Criticisms 489
Control Options
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 526
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) 527
The Consumer Product Safety Commission
(CPSC) 529
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
(NHTSA) 530
Consumer Protection by Other Agencies 532
Negligence 534
Warranty 535
Strict Liability 536
Costs and Benefits of the Tort System
Chapter 14
Managing Environmental
Quality 476
Cost–Benefit Analysis
Consumerism as a Protective Movement
Environmental Regulation in the
United States 447
The Environmental Protection Agency
Consumerism as an Ideology 515
Consumerism Rises in America 516
Consumerism in Perspective 518
The Global Rise of Consumerism 522
Ford Motor Company 549
External Forces Shaping the Workplace
Demographic Change 553
Technological Change 555
Structural Change 556
Competitive Pressures 558
Reorganization of Work 560
Concluding Observations 503
Case Study: Harvesting Risk 503
Government Intervention
Work and Worker Protection in Japan and
Europe 569
Chapter 15
Harvey W. Wiley
Development of Labor Regulation in the United
States 562
Japan 569
Europe 570
Labor Regulation in Perspective 572
Concluding Observations 572
Case Study: A Tale of Two Raids 575
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x Table of Contents
Chapter 17
Civil Rights, Women, and
Diversity 585
Corporate Governance
The Employment Non-Discrimination Act
A Short History of Workplace Civil
Rights 587
Affirmative Action
The Supreme Court Changes Title VII
The Affirmative Action Debate
Enron Corp. 640
Other Failures of Governance 644
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act 645
Lehman Brothers 646
The Dodd-Frank Act 650
Boards of Directors
Executive Compensation
Components of Executive Compensation 655
Problems with CEO Compensation 659
Elements of Diversity Programs
Federal Regulation of Governance
Duties of Directors 652
Board Composition 652
Board Dynamics 653
Gender Attitudes at Work 604
Subtle Discrimination 605
Sexual Harassment 607
Occupational Segregation 610
Compensation 612
Executive Order 11246
Women at Work
Stockholders 636
Shareholder Resolutions 638
Assessing Shareholder Influence
Disparate Treatment and Disparate Impact
The Griggs Case 596
Mark Hurd 630
What Is Corporate Governance? 633
The Corporate Charter 634
Power in Corporate Governance: Theory and
Reality 636
The Colonial Era 588
Civil War and Reconstruction 589
Other Groups Face Employment
Discrimination 590
The Civil Rights Cases 591
Plessy v. Ferguson 592
Long Years of Discrimination 593
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
Chapter 18
Corporate Governance
Concluding Observations 618
Case Study: Adarand v. Peña 619
Concluding Observations 663
Case Study: High Noon at HewlettPackard 664
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