Campbellsville University Lecture Comment Discussion Please take a moment to share your thoughts, ideas, comments and / or questions concerning Week 3’s le

Campbellsville University Lecture Comment Discussion Please take a moment to share your thoughts, ideas, comments and / or questions concerning Week 3’s lectureneed a paper with atleast 350 words with min 2 references Managing and Using Information Systems:
A Strategic Approach – Sixth Edition
Keri Pearlson, Carol Saunders,
and Dennis Galletta
© Copyright 2016
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 4
IT and the Design of Work
American Express Opening Case
• What is the “Blue Work” program?
• What was the strategic thrust behind the Blue Work
• What are “hub,” “club,” “home,” and “roam”
• What is the role of technology in these
• What was the impact of Blue Work?
• Have other firms found roaming employment
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Work Design Framework
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
IT Has Changed Work
•IT has:
•Created new types of work
• Bureau of Labor Statistics: IT employment in the
USA is at an all-time high
• New jobs such as:
• Data scientists/data miners
• Social media managers
• Communications managers
•Enabled new ways to do traditional work
•Supported new ways to manage people
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
How IT Changes Traditional Work
• Changes the way work is done
• Broadens skills; faster but more tasks
• Sometimes IT disconnects us from the tasks
• Sometimes people can perform more strategic tasks
• Few staff are engaged in order entry any longer
• Crowdsourcing is now possible at very low cost (M.Turk)
• Changes how we communicate
• More asynchronous and more irregular
• Social networking has provided new opportunities for
customer interaction
• Collaboration allows a firm to look “big” with new tools
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
How IT Changes Traditional Work
• Changes decision-making
• Real-time information; more information available
• Data mining can identify new insights
• Ideas can be gleaned from social networks
• Middle management ranks have shrunk as Leavitt/Whisler
• Changes collaboration
• Work is now more team oriented; more collaborative
• Sharing is easier than ever, using multiple methods
• Crowdsourcing can now provide quick answers from tens,
hundreds, or even thousands of people
• We now can disconnect PLACE and TIME (Figure 4.2)
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Collaboration Technologies Matrix
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
How IT Changes Traditional Work
• New ways to connect
• Many employees are always connected
• Lines between work and play are now blurred
• For many, home technologies are better than work
• New ways to manage people
• Behavior controls – direct supervision
• Outcome controls – examining outcomes not actions
• Personnel controls – pick the right person for the task
• The digital approach provides new opportunities at any of
those three levels (Fig. 4.3)
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Changes to Supervision/Evaluations/
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Where Work is Done: Mobile and
Virtual Work
• Much work can be done anywhere, anytime
• People desire the flexibility
• Telecommuting = teleworking = working from home or
even in a coffee shop
• Mobile workers work from anywhere (often while
• Remote workers = telecommuters + mobile workers
• Virtual teams include remote workers as well as those
in their offices, perhaps scattered geographically
• Virtual teams have a life cycle (Figure 4.4)
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Key Activities in the Life Cycle of
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Telecommuting: Global Status
•A poll of 11,300 employees in 22 countries: 1
in 6 telecommute
•When employees in 13 countries were asked if
they need to be in the office to be productive:
• Overall 39% said “yes”
• But specific countries differed in the “yes” votes:
• Only 7% in India, but
• 56% in Japan
• 57% in Germany
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Drivers of Remote Work and Virtual Teams
Shift to knowledge-based work
Decouples work from any particular
Changing demographics and
lifestyle preferences
Workers desire geographic and timeshifting flexibility
New technologies with enhanced
Remotely-performed work is practical
and cost-effective
Web ubiquity
Can stay connected 24/7
“Green” concerns
Reduced commuting costs; real
estate energy consumption; travel
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Some advantages and disadvantages of remote work
Advantages of Remote Work
Potential Problems
Reduced stress: better ability to meet
schedules; less distraction at work
Increased stress: Harder to separate
work from home life
Higher morale and lower absenteeism Harder to evaluate performance
Geographic flexibility
Employee may become disconnected
from company culture
Higher personal productivity
Telecommuters are more easily
replaced by offshore workers
Housebound individuals can join the
Not suitable for all jobs or employees
Informal Dress
Security might be more difficult
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Virtual Teams
•Virtual Teams: geographically and/or
organizationally dispersed coworkers:
• Assembled using telecommunications and IT
• Aim is to accomplish an organizational task
• Often must be evaluated using outcome controls
•Why are they growing in popularity?
• Information explosion: some specialists are far away
• Enhanced bandwidths/fast connections to outsiders
• Technology is available to assist collaboration
• Less difficult to get relevant stakeholders together
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Challenges facing virtual teams.
Virtual Teams
Traditional Teams

Multiple time zones can lead to
greater efficiency but can lead to
communication difficulties and
coordination costs (passing work).
Non-verbal communication is
difficult to convey

Proficiency is required in several


Team Diversity

Members represent different
organizations and/or cultures:
– Harder to establish a group identity.
– Necessary to have better com. skills
– More difficult to build trust, norms
– Impact of deadlines not always

Same time zone.
Scheduling is less difficult.
Teams may use richer
communication media.
Support for face-to-face
interaction without replacing
Skills and task-technology
fit is less critical
More homogeneous
– Easier group identity
– Easier to communicate
Managerial Issues In Telecommuting and
Mobile Work
• Planning, business and support tasks must be
redesigned to support mobile and remote workers
• Training should be offered so all workers can
understand the new work environment
• Employees selected for telecommuting jobs must
be self-starters
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Managing the Challenges
• Communications challenges
• Policies and practices must support the work arrangements
• Must prepare differently for meetings
• Slides and other electronic material must be shared beforehand
• Soft-spoken people are difficult to hear; managers must repeat key
• Frequent communications are helpful (hard to “overcommunicate”)
• Technology challenges
• Provide technology and support to remote workers
• Use high quality web conferencing applications
• Clarify time zones for scheduling
• Information should be available for everyone (cloud storage can
• Policies and norms about use of the technology can be important
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Managing the Challenges
•Diversity challenges
•Concept of time differs throughout the world
• Anglo-American cultures view time as a continuum
(deadlines are important; many prefer not to multitask)
• Indian cultures have a cyclical view of time (deadlines are
less potent; many prefer to multitask)
•Team diversity might need nurturing:
• Communications differences
• Trust building
• Group identity formation
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Gaining Acceptance For It-induced
• Many changes might be a major concern for
• Changes might be resisted if they are viewed as
negative impacts
• Several types of resistance:
• Denying that the system is up and running
• Sabotage by distorting or otherwise altering inputs
• Believing and/or spreading the word that the new system
will not change the status quo
• Refusing to use the new system (if voluntary)
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Kotter’s Model
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
Managing and Using Information Systems:
A Strategic Approach – Sixth Edition
Keri Pearlson, Carol Saunders,
and Dennis Galletta
© Copyright 2016
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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