Chapter 5 Honeynet Website Project From Chapter 5, page 218, Real World Exercise 5.3 (attached image of the exercises)Attaching PPT for further reference.

Chapter 5 Honeynet Website Project From Chapter 5, page 218, Real World Exercise 5.3 (attached image of the exercises)Attaching PPT for further reference. I do not have the textbook, linking ISBN number below if it helps in anyway.Textbook:Michael E. Whitman, Herbert J. Mattord, Andrew Green. Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery (2014). Cengage Learning. ISBN: 978-1111138059. Principles of Incident Response
and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
Chapter 5
Incident Response: Detection and
Decision Making
Objectives
• Define incidents that pose a risk to the organization
• Discuss the elements necessary to detect incidents
• Explain the components of an intrusion detection
and prevention system
• Describe the processes used in making decisions
about incident detection and escalation
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
2
Introduction
• Organizations’ challenge
– Classifying events as they occur
• Event
– Any observable system or network occurrence
• Adverse event
– Event with negative consequences
• Systems: computer, personnel, organization based
– Not all events computer or network oriented
• Event sources
– Product of routine system activities, critical situations
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
3
Introduction (cont’d.)
• Incident
– Occurs when an adverse event becomes a genuine
threat to ongoing operations
• Incident classification process
– Evaluating circumstances around events
– Determining possible incidents (incident candidates)
– Determining if adverse event constitutes an actual
incident
• Incident response (IR) design team role
– Designing the process used to make a judgment
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
4
Introduction (cont’d.)
• IR team responsibility
– Classifying an incident
• Sources for tracking and detecting incident
candidates




End user reports and other documents
Intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPSs)
Virus management software
Systems administrators
• Careful incident candidate reporting training
– Allows vital information to be relayed to the IR team
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
5
Introduction (cont’d.)
• NIST incident classification scheme for networkbased incident





Denial of service
Malicious code
Unauthorized access
Inappropriate usage
Multiple component
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
6
Detecting Incidents
• Events occurring in and around an organization
– May indicate presence of an incident candidate
– May be normal operation mimicking incident
candidate
• Indication: adverse event underway
– Has probability of becoming an incident
• Precursor: activity now occurring
– Incident could occur in the future
• D. L. Pipkin incident indicator categories
– Possible, probable, and definite
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
7
Possible Indicators of an Incident
• Presence of unfamiliar files
– Unfamiliar or unexplained files in illogical locations
• Presence or execution of unknown programs or
processes
– Unfamiliar programs running, or processes executing
• Unusual consumption of computing resources
– Memory or hard disk consumption spikes and falls
• Unusual system crashes
– System crashing, hanging, rebooting, or freezing
more frequently than usual
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
8
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
9
Probable Indicators of an Incident
• Activities at unexpected times
– Network traffic levels exceed baseline levels
• Presence of unexpected new accounts
– Periodic review indicates unfamiliar accounts
• Unlogged new account with root or special privileges
• Reported attacks
– Verify user technical sophistication
• Notification from IDPS
– Must determine if notification real or a false positive
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Definite Indicators
• Definite indicators requiring IR plan activation





Use of dormant accounts
Changes to logs
Presence of hacker tools
Notifications by partner or peer
Notification by hacker
• Confirmed events indicating attack underway
– Loss of availability or integrity or confidentiality
– Violation of policy or violation of law
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
11
Identifying Real Incidents
• Actual incidents versus nonevents
– Vast majority of incidents: false positives
• Ways to process incidents
– Incident center; geographically separate review
locations; isolated incident candidate evaluations
• Noise: legitimate activities wrongly reported
– Activate feedback process to prevent flagging
– Inherent in the nature of best-tuned systems
• Causes of noise or false positives
– Sensor placement; policy; lack of awareness
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Identifying Real Incidents (cont’d.)
• Data collection tuning process
– Provides careful change analysis to data collection
rules
• False negative
– Incident deserving attention that is not reported
• New or modified systems placed in service
– May need additional data collection process tuning
• Tuning process objective
– Allow valid incidents while controlling false positives
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Intrusion Detection and Prevention
Systems
• Intrusion detection and prevention system (IDPS)
– Network burglar alarm
– Determines if network used in compliance with policy
• Intrusion
– Instigator attempting to gain unauthorized entry or
disrupt normal operations
– Access outside intended system or network use
– Attack types: automated or self-propagating
– Purpose of intrusion: harm an organization
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
14
Intrusion Detection and Prevention
Systems (cont’d.)
• Intrusion detection systems (IDSs)
– Detects a violation and activates an alarm
• Alarm types: audible, visual, silent
– Custom configuration levels available
• Intrusion prevention system (IPS)
– Detects intrusion and prevents successful attack
using an active response
• IDPS source
– http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/80094/SP800-94.pdf
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
15
IDPS Terminology
• Alarm or alert
– Indication system just attacked or under attack
• Alarm clustering
– Consolidation of almost identical alarms into a single
higher-level alarm
• Alarm compaction
– Form of alarm clustering based on similarities
• Alarm filtering
– Process of classifying attack alerts to distinguish or
sort false positives from actual attacks more efficiently
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
16
IDPS Terminology (cont’d.)
• Confidence value
– Value associated with an IDPS’s ability to detect and
identify an attack correctly
• Evasion
– Process by which attacker changes network packets
format and/or timing to avoid being detected
• False attack stimulus
– Event triggering alarms causing false positive when
no actual attack in progress
• False negative
– IDPS’s failure to react to an actual attack event
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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IDPS Terminology (cont’d.)
• False positive
– Alarm or alert indicating attack in progress or attack
successful when there is no attack
• Filtering
– Process of reducing IDPS events in order to receive a
better confidence in the alerts received
• Noise
– Ongoing activity from alarm events
• Site policy
– Rules and configuration guidelines governing IDPSs
implementation and operation
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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IDPS Terminology (cont’d.)
• Site policy awareness
– IDPS’s ability to dynamically modify its site policies in
reaction or response to environmental activity
• True attack stimulus
– Event triggering an alarm causing IDPS to react as if
a real attack were in progress
• Tuning
– Process of adjusting an IDPS
• Maximize true positive detection efficiency
• Minimize both false positives and false negatives
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Why Use an IDPS?
• Prevent problem behaviors
– Increase perceived risk of discovery and punishment
• Detect attacks and security violations
– Not prevented by other security measures
• Detect and deal with preambles to attacks
• Document existing threat to an organization
• Act as quality control for security design and
administration
– Especially of large and complex enterprises
• Provide useful information about intrusions
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Why Use an IDPS? (cont’d.)
• Straightforward deterrent measure
– Increases fear of detection and discovery among
would-be attackers or internal system abusers
• NIST defined uses
– Identifying security policy problems
– Documenting the existing threat to an organization
– Deterring individuals from violating security policies
• Provides cover if network:
– Fails to protect itself from known vulnerabilities
– Unable to respond to rapidly changing threat
environment
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Forces Working against an IDPS





Tools fail to detect or correct a known deficiency
Vulnerability-detection performed too infrequently
Patch and upgrade installation delayed
Inability to disable or protect essential services
Use an IDPS for a Defense in Depth strategy
– Doorknob rattling conducted by footprinting
– Fingerprinting
– Early warning allows time to prepare for attack
• Automated responses lead to unintended
consequence
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Justifying the Cost
• Prepare and defend business case using IDPS data
• NIST IDPS key items
– Total cost of ownership well exceeds acquisition costs
– Designed with personnel availability around the clock
• Justify IDPS using Defense in Depth concept
• IDPS can provide information in post-attack review
– Remedy deficiency and trigger improvement process
– Forensic data
• IDPS systems: Network-based, host-based, and
application-based systems
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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IDPS Network Placement
• Placement of sensor and detection devices or
software programs
– Has significant effect on IDPS operation
• Three widely used IDPS placement options
– Network-based
– Host-based
– Application-based
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Network-Based IDPS
• Network-based IDPS (NIDPS)
– Monitors segment traffic
• Looks for ongoing or successful attack indications
• Resides on a computer or appliance connected to that
network segment
– Programmed to recognize attacks and respond
• Examines packets
• Looks for patterns indicating intrusion event under way
or about to begin
– Detects more attack types than host-based IDPS
– More complex configuration, maintenance program
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Network-Based IDPS (cont’d.)
• Inline sensor
– Deployment on firewall interior of a firewall
• All traffic must pass through sensor, then report back
to the NIDPS
• NIDPS deployment
– Watch specific host computer grouping on specific
network segment
– Installed to monitor all traffic between systems
making up an entire network
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Network-Based IDPS (cont’d.)
• Passive sensor
– Sits off to the side of a network segment
– Monitors traffic without mandating traffic physically
pass through the sensor
• Switched port analysis (SPAN) port or mirror port
– Switch or key networking device placed next to a hub
– NIDPS uses that device’s monitoring port
• Snort open source software (http://www.snort.org)
– For complex IDPS sensors and analysis systems
– Manage and query system from a desktop computer
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Network-Based IDPS (cont’d.)
• Signature matching
– NIDPSs look for attack patterns
• Compares measured activity to known signatures in
their knowledge base
• Determines if attack occurred or may be under way
– Uses special TCP/IP stack implementation
– NIDPS looks for invalid data packets
– Application protocol verification
• Higher-order protocols examined for unexpected
packet behavior or improper use
• May have valid packets excessive quantities
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
30
Network-Based IDPS (cont’d.)
• Signature matching (cont’d.)
– DNS cache poisoning
• Valid packets exploit poorly configured DNS servers
• Inject false information
• Corrupt servers’ answer to routine DNS queries from
other systems on the network
• Wireless NIDPS
– Monitors and analyzes wireless network traffic
– Looks for potential problems with wireless protocols
– Sensor deployment: at the access points, on
specialized components, or in mobile stations
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
31
Network-Based IDPS (cont’d.)
• Wireless NIDPS (cont’d.)
– Centralized management stations collect information
– Detection
• Unauthorized wireless LANs (WLANs) and WLAN
devices; poorly secured WLAN devices; unusual
usage patterns; use of wireless network scanners;
DoS attacks and conditions; impersonation and manin-the-middle attacks
– Issues
• Higher protocol monitoring; physical security; sensor
range; access point and wireless switch locations;
wired network connections; cost
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Network-Based IDPS (cont’d.)
• Advantages and disadvantages of NIDPSs
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
33
Host-Based IDPSs
• Host-based IDPS (HIDPS)
– Resides on a particular computer or server (host)
• Monitors activity on that system
– Known as system integrity verifiers
• Benchmarks and monitors key system files status
• Detects when intruder creates, modifies, or deletes
monitored files
– Can monitor system configuration databases and
stored configuration files
– Uses principle of configuration or change
management
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
34
Host-Based IDPSs (cont’d.)
• Host-based IDPS (cont’d.)
– Alert or alarm triggers
• File attributes change, new files created, existing files
deleted
– Can monitor systems logs for predefined events
– HIDPS log file provides an independent audit trail
– Very reliable
• False positive alert produced only when authorized
monitored file changed
– Can access encrypted information
– Information to determine legitimate traffic present
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
35
Host-Based IDPSs (cont’d.)
• HIDPS configuration
– Simple change-based system
• Relies on file classification into various categories
• Triggers alert on changes within a critical data folder
• Can log all activity and instantly page or e-mail any
administrator
• Can generate large volume of false alarms
– Can monitor multiple computers simultaneously
– Must identify and categorize folders and files
• Common method: red, yellow, and green
• Some systems use an alternative scale of 0–100
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
36
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
37
Host-Based IDPSs (cont’d.)
• Advantages and Disadvantages of HIDPS
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
38
Application-Based IDPS
• Application-based IDPS (AppIDPS)
– Examines an application for abnormal events
• Looks for anomalous occurrences
– Tracks interaction between users and applications
• Allows tracing of specific activity back to individual
users
– Can view encrypted data
– Types of requests examined
• File systems, network, configuration, execution space
– The need for intrusion detection is organization
dependent
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
39
Application-Based IDPS (cont’d.)
• Advantages and disadvantages of AppIDPS
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
40
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
41
IDPS Detection Approaches
• Signature-based IDPS (knowledge-based)
– Examines data traffic in search of patterns matching
known signatures
– Weaknesses
• Signatures must be continually updated
• Time frame over which attacks occur
• Anomaly-based IDPS (behavior-based IDPS)
– Samples network activity and applies statistical
analysis against a baseline
– Clipping level
• Measured activity outside baseline parameters
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
42
IDPS Detection Approaches (cont’d.)
• Anomaly-based IDPS (cont’d.)
– Advantage
• Can detect new attack types
– Disadvantages
• Requires overhead and processing capacity
• May not detect minor changes to system variables
generating false positives
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
43
IDPS Detection Approaches (cont’d.)
• Log file monitor (LFM)
– Type of IDPS similar to the NIDPS
– Reviews servers, network devices, other IDPSs log
files
– Can look at multiple log files from a number of
different systems
– Uses a holistic approach
• Requires considerable resource allocation
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
44
Automated Response
• New systems can respond incident threats
autonomously
– Based on preconfigured options
– Goes beyond usual IDPS and IPS defensive actions
• Trap and trace
– Uses a combination of resources to:
• Detect an intrusion
• Trace the intrusion back to its source
– Allows security administrators to take the offense
– Legal issue: temptation to back hack
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
45
Automated Response (cont’d.)
• Honeypots and honeynets
• Honeypots
– Servers configured to resemble production systems
– Closely monitored network decoys
– Advantages
• Distracts adversaries from more valuable machines
• Provides early warning about new attack trends
• Allows in-depth examination of adversaries
– Two general types
• Production and research
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
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Automated Response (cont’d.)
• Honeytoken
– System resource placed onto a functional system
• No normal use for that system
– Unauthorized access triggers notification or response
• Honeynet (honeypot farm)
– High-interaction honeypot
– Designed to capture extensive information on threats
– Network of systems designed for attackers interaction
• Inbound connections: indicates probe, scan, attack
• Outbound connections: indicates system compromise
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
47
Automated Response (cont’d.)
• Legal issues with honeypots and honeynets




Line between enticement and entrapment
Fourth amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Electronic Communications Protection Act
Pen Register, Trap and Trace Devices law (Pen/Trap
statute)
– Wasp trap syndrome
• Downside of current enhanced automated response
systems may outweigh the upside
Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition
48
Incident Decision Making
• Incident known to be underway
– Must determine actual incidents a…
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