Columbia University Child Growth and Development Questions Instructions: Please answer both questions. The page limit for question one is about 2 pages. Th

Columbia University Child Growth and Development Questions Instructions: Please answer both questions. The page limit for question one is about 2 pages. The page limit for question two is the same. Both responses should be double-spaced, with one-inch margins. Do not exceed the page limit of 6 total pages.

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Do not reproduce the exam questions above your answers—this takes up space you can use for your answer. Do number your responses.

Put the authors’ arguments you discuss into your own words. Do not quote directly from the text. Points may be deducted for use of direct quotations.

Make sure to address all parts of the question prompt in your answer.

You do not need to include a formal introduction or conclusion—just focus on addressing the questions in the prompt.

Try your best to write clearly and concisely. Remember, this is your chance to show how well you know this material.

Make sure to proofread and edit your work before turning in your exam.

Citing materials: I expect you to reference materials correctly. It should be clear where ideas, information and arguments are coming from—if they are your own (you can say “I”), an assigned reading, or another source. For example, when referencing an argument from Zelizer, you could include a parenthetical citation at the end of your sentence, such as (Zelizer, 1985). Or you could write something like “Zelizer argues that children went from being viewed as economically useful to useless”.

You do not need to include a reference list for this exam as you will be drawing on materials listed on the syllabus and/or used in lectures.

Exam Questions

1.Zelizer argues that the debate about child labor and the way it unfolded over time was influenced by other events and trends that were happening in U.S. society more broadly over the same period. Identify these factors and explain how each one shaped the debate over child labor, and the eventual social shift to the view of children as economically “useless” and valued for sentimental reasons. Then, read the article “The Overlooked Children Working America’s Tobacco Fields”. What similarities and differences do you see between the situation described for child tobacco workers today and what you described above for the period Zelizer describes?

Link to article: https://www.theatlantic.com/family/archive/2018/06/child-labor-tobacco/562964/ (Links to an external site.)

2.Using examples from class readings, the film The Raising of America and lecture material on child development, what kinds of environments are the most beneficial for children’s physical, emotional and social growth and development? Describe three barriers standing in the way of providing these environments to children, and whether they are experienced equally across social groups, and how they could affect children’s development. Finally, based on your prior discussion, describe a specific change you would make to an institution that affects children and their families that you think would improve children’s well-being, making sure to support and explain your answer. Make sure to draw on multiple readings in your answer. Research Brief
Updated February 20, 2018*
February 2018
Publication #2018-03
The prevalence of adverse childhood
experiences, nationally, by state, and
by race/ethnicity
Vanessa Sacks, MPP, and David Murphey, PhD
Overview
A growing body of research has made it
increasingly apparent that adverse childhood
experiences (ACEs) are a critical public
health issue. ACEs are potentially traumatic
experiences and events, ranging from abuse
and neglect to living with an adult with a
mental illness. They can have negative, lasting
effects on health and well-being in childhood
or later in life.1 However, more important than
exposure to any specific event of this type
is the accumulation of multiple adversities
during childhood, which is associated with
especially deleterious effects on development.2
There is growing interest in understanding the
prevalence of these experiences across different
communities in the United States, and how to
prevent and respond to them. One mechanism responsible for these effects—toxic levels of stress—
can be substantially buffered by a stable and supportive relationship with a caregiver.
This brief uses data from the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) to describe the
prevalence of one or more ACEs among children from birth through age 17, as reported by a parent
or guardian. The data are representative at national and state levels. The study team estimated
the national prevalence of eight specific ACEs and compared the prevalence of these ACEs across
states. To examine prevalence differences by race/ethnicity and geography, we used the nine
geographic divisions used by the U.S. Census Bureau.3
Key Findings

Economic hardship and divorce or separation of a parent or guardian are the most common
ACEs reported nationally, and in all states.

Just under half (45 percent) of children in the United States have experienced at least one ACE,
which is similar to the rate of exposure found in a 2011/2012 survey.a In Arkansas, the state with
the highest prevalence, 56 percent of children have experienced at least one ACE.
a
Child Trends reported on these data in an earlier publication: Adverse Childhood Experiences: National and State-level Prevalence. The
Health Resources and Services Administration’s Maternal and Child Health Bureau and the Child and Adolescent Health Measurement
Initiative’s Data Resource Center caution against making direct comparisons of 2016 data with those collected in earlier waves of the
survey, because of design changes in 2016.
*See errata at https://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/ACEsBriefErrata_2018.pdf
Child Trends | 7315 Wisconsin Avenue Suite 1200 W | Bethesda, MD 20814 | childtrends.org
1
Research
Brief
The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences,
nationally, by state, and by race/ethnicity

One in ten children nationally has experienced three or more ACEs, placing them in a category
of especially high risk. In five states—Arizona, Arkansas, Montana, New Mexico, and Ohio—as
many as one in seven children had experienced three or more ACEs.

Children of different races and ethnicities do not experience ACEs equally. Nationally, 61
percent of black non-Hispanic children and 51 percent of Hispanic children have experienced at
least one ACE, compared with 40 percent of white non-Hispanic children and only 23 percent
of Asian non-Hispanic children. In every division, the prevalence of ACEs is lowest among Asian
non-Hispanic children and, in most divisions, is highest among black non-Hispanic children.
Adverse Childhood Experiences Can Have Profound Effects
ACEs can cause stress reactions in children, including feelings of intense fear, terror, and
helplessness. When activated repeatedly or over a prolonged period of time (especially in the
absence of protective factors), toxic levels of stress hormones can interrupt normal physical and
mental development and can even change the brain’s architecture. ACEs have been linked to
numerous negative outcomes in adulthood, and research has increasingly identified effects of
ACEs in childhood.4,5 Negative outcomes associated with ACEs include some of society’s most
intractable (and, in many cases, growing) health issues: alcoholism, drug abuse, depression,
suicide, poor physical health, and obesity. There is also some evidence that ACEs are linked to
lower educational attainment, unemployment, and poverty.6 In childhood, children who have
experienced ACEs are more likely to struggle in school and have emotional and behavioral
challenges.7 Nevertheless, not all children who experience one of these adverse events (or even
more than one) are negatively affected; much depends on the context in which they occur—
particularly the context of positive relationships.
Research has found that the risk for negative outcomes increases with the number of ACEs; in
other words, children who have experienced multiple ACEs are substantially more likely to be
negatively affected than children who have experienced only one.8,9 A seminal study published in
the late 1990s by Felitti, Anda, and their colleagues (that first coined the term “adverse childhood
experiences”) found that adults who had experienced four or more ACES had a particularly high
risk for negative physical and mental health outcomes, including some of the leading causes
of death in the United States.10 Subsequent studies have identified lower thresholds, ranging
from one to three ACEs, as the tipping point at which risk increases greatly.11,12 There are likely
to be multiple factors that account for individual variation in response to adversity, including
genetic predispositions and other biological characteristics, as well as contextual factors such as
supportive adult relationships.
One of the most sobering findings regarding ACEs is preliminary evidence that their negative
effects can be transmitted from one generation to the next.13,14 Toxic stress experienced by women
during pregnancy can negatively affect genetic “programming” during fetal development, which
can contribute to a host of bad outcomes, sometimes much later in life.15 Infants born to women
who experienced four or more childhood adversities were two to five times more likely to have
poor physical and emotional health outcomes by 18 months of age, according to one recently
published study.16
2
Research
Brief
The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences,
nationally, by state, and by race/ethnicity
Measurement of Adverse Childhood Experiences
There is no single agreed-upon list of experiences that encompass what we refer to as adverse
childhood experiences. The original ACEs study asked a large sample of adults about seven
childhood experiences: psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as exposure in the
home to substance abuse, mental illness and suicide, incarceration, or violence.17 Since then, the
list of ACEs used in one or more studies has been expanded to include physical and emotional
neglect, parental separation and divorce, exposure to violence outside of the home, living in
unsafe neighborhoods, homelessness, bullying, discrimination based on race or ethnicity, and
experience of income insecurity.18 One reason for the development of different ACEs measures
that incorporate a broader set of experiences is that researchers and practitioners have sought to
better capture the diverse experiences of children from different backgrounds, particularly children
of color and those living in poverty. However, no list is likely to include all adversities and traumatic
experiences that children may experience. Thus, researchers and practitioners should be aware that
screening for ACEs does not substitute for comprehensive trauma screening and assessment, for
which there are many well-validated tools.19
The 2016 NSCH includes nine ACEs; we report here on the prevalence of eight of those
experiences.b The biggest difference between the list of ACEs in the NSCH data and other lists
used in the research (or as part of the screening tools used to identify children with ACEs) is that
the NSCH data do not explicitly ask parents to report on their child’s experiences of abuse and
neglect. Specifically, parents are asked about whether their child has ever:
1.
Lived with a parent or guardian who became divorced or separated
2. Lived with a parent or guardian who died
3. Lived with a parent or guardian who served time in jail or prison
4. Lived with anyone who was mentally ill or suicidal, or severely depressed for more than a
couple of weeks
5. Lived with anyone who had a problem with alcohol or drugs
6. Witnessed a parent, guardian, or other adult in the household behaving violently toward
another (e.g., slapping, hitting, kicking, punching, or beating each other up)
7.
Been the victim of violence or witnessed any violence in his or her neighborhood
8. Experienced economic hardship “somewhat often” or “very often” (i.e., the family found it hard
to cover costs of food and housing)
b
The ninth item that parents are asked to report on is how often their child was treated or judged unfairly because of his or her race or
ethnicity. We do not include this ACE in this analysis, both because of the subjectivity of the question (what constitutes unfair treatment or
judgement is open to different interpretations) and because parents may not be reliable reporters of their child’s experience in this area (for
example, parents may not be aware of the extent of their child’s experiences of discrimination).
3
Research
Brief
The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences,
nationally, by state, and by race/ethnicity
State-Level Variation in the Prevalence of Adverse Childhood
Experiences
Table 1 shows the prevalence of one or more ACEs, according to parents’ reports on their child,
both nationally and by state. Nationally, 55 percent of children had experienced no ACEs. The
percentage of children who had experienced no ACEs was significantly higher than the national
average in three states: Maryland, Massachusetts, and Minnesota. At the national level, about one
in ten children (10 percent) had experienced three or more ACEs. In five states—Arizona,
Arkansas, Montana, New Mexico, and Ohio—as many as one in seven children had experienced
three or more ACEs, a significantly higher ratio than the national average.
Table 1. Among Children from Birth through Age 17, Percentage Reported to Have Had Zero, One,
Two, and Three or More ACEs, Nationally and by State
0 ACEs
1 ACE
2 ACEs
3 to 8 ACEs
United States
55
24
11
10
AL
52
21
16
11
AK
56
22
8
14
AZ
52
18
12
18
AR
44
27
13
16
CA
59
25
8
7
CO
55
23
11
11
CT
58
24
8
11
DE
53
24
12
11
DC
54
24
11
11
FL
49
26
14
10
GA
53
21
13
13
HI
57
22
11
10
ID
50
27
9
14
IL
60
20
10
10
IN
54
23
11
12
IA
56
25
8
11
KS
56
23
8
13
KY
47
27
13
14
LA
48
25
12
14
ME
49
27
11
14
MD
61
25
9
5
MA
62
23
8
7
MI
55
24
11
10
Yellow shading = Percentage is higher than the national average at a statistically significant level.
Blue shading = Percentage is lower than the national average at a statistically significant level.
Red shading = Estimate should be interpreted with caution, because the relative confidence interval is greater than 120 percent.
See the “About the data used in this report” section for more information
4
Research
Brief
The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences,
nationally, by state, and by race/ethnicity
Table 1 cont. Among Children from Birth through Age 17, Percentage Reported to Have Had Zero,
One, Two, and Three or More ACEs, Nationally and by State
0 ACEs
1 ACE
2 ACEs
3 to 8 ACEs
MN
63
21
7
9
MS
49
25
12
14
MO
54
20
13
13
MT
50
25
9
16
NE
58
22
8
11
NV
48
29
10
13
NH
58
22
12
7
NJ
59
23
11
7
NM
48
25
9
18
NY
55
31
10
5
NC
53
25
10
12
ND
60
25
8
8
OH
51
22
13
15
OK
49
28
11
13
OR
53
24
11
11
PA
54
25
10
10
RI
54
24
11
12
SC
53
23
14
10
SD
55
24
9
12
TN
53
23
11
12
TX
51
25
12
12
UT
60
24
7
9
VT
56
25
7
12
VA
59
22
8
11
WA
58
23
8
11
WV
50
25
11
14
WI
60
20
9
11
WY
54
21
12
13
Yellow shading = Percentage is higher than the national average at a statistically significant level.
Blue shading = Percentage is lower than the national average at a statistically significant level.
Red shading = Estimate should be interpreted with caution, because the relative confidence interval is greater than 120 percent.
See the “About the data used in this report” section for more information
5
Research
Brief
The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences,
nationally, by state, and by race/ethnicity
Economic Hardship and Parental Separation or Divorce Are the Most
Common Adverse Childhood Experiences
While the accumulation of ACEs, rather than any particular ACE, is most strongly predictive of
negative outcomes, policymakers and practitioners will want to understand the specific challenges
facing children in their own states, in order to target limited resources for relevant interventions. By
the same token, efforts that reduce the likelihood that any single ACE will occur are likely to make
a difference for overall well-being.
Nationally—and in all 50 states and the District of Columbia—the two most common ACEs are
economic hardship and the separation or divorce of a parent or guardian. About one-quarter of
children have experienced at least one of these events. In West Virginia, one in three children
have experienced economic hardship, compared to a rate of just one in five in Minnesota, New
Hampshire, and North Dakota. In Arkansas and Kentucky, about one-third of children have dealt
with parental separation or divorce, but just 18 to 19 percent have experienced the same in Illinois,
Maryland, Massachusetts, and Utah.
Other ACEs—such as the death of a parent or guardian, or being the victim of or witnessing
violence in the neighborhood—are more rare. Nationally, these experiences were identified for only
three to four percent of children. However, these experiences are more common than the national
average in a handful of states. For example, in Arkansas and Georgia, six percent of children have
experienced the death of a parent or guardian. In Nevada and Hawaii, seven percent have been
victims of, or have witnessed, violence in their neighborhood.
Table 2. Prevalence of Individual ACEs, Nationally and by State
Hard to
cover
basics like
food or
housing
somewhat
or very
often
Lived
with
anyone
who
Parent or has a
guardian
problem
divorced
with
or
alcohol
separated or drugs
Lived with
anyone
mentally
ill,
suicidal,
or
severely
depressed
Saw or
heard
parents
Parent
or other
or
adults
guardian slap, hit,
served
kick, or
time in
punch in
jail
home
Parent
or
guardian
died
Victim of or
witness to
violence in
neighborhood
United
States
25
25
9
8
8
6
3
4
AL
28
30
10
8
8
6
5
4
AK
22
27
13
11
9
7
4
5
AZ
27
32
16
10
13
11
3
6
AR
31
33
12
10
16
10
6
5
CA
22
22
7
6
6
3
2
2
CO
23
27
12
9
8
5
3
3
CT
24
25
8
8
6
4
3
4
Yellow shading = Percentage is higher from the national average at a statistically significant level.
Blue shading = Percentage is lower than the national average at a statistically significant level.
Red shading = Estimate should be interpreted with caution, because relative confidence interval is greater than 120 percent.
See the “About the data used in this report” section for more information.
6
Research
Brief
The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences,
nationally, by state, and by race/ethnicity
Table 2 cont. Prevalence of Individual ACEs, Nationally and by State
Hard to
cover
basics like
food or
housing
somewhat
or very
often
Lived
with
anyone
who
Parent or has a
guardian
problem
divorced
with
or
alcohol
separated or drugs
Lived with
anyone
mentally
ill,
suicidal,
or
severely
depressed
Saw or
heard
parents
Parent
or other
or
adults
guardian slap, hit,
served
kick, or
time in
punch in
jail
home
Parent
or
guardian
died
Victim of or
witness to
violence in
neighborhood
DE
24
25
8
7
10
7
3
6
DC
21
25
7
5
9
6
5
9
FL
27
30
8
5
11
7
4
5
GA
26
27
8
9
10
6
6
6
HI
24
22
10
5
5
10
2
7
ID
29
26
11
13
9
6
3
4
IL
23
19
8
8
6
6
3
4
IN
24
27
10
9
10
8
5
6
IA
25
23
9
10
6
5
2
5
KS
23
27
11
9
9
6
2
4
KY
27
33
12
10
15
7
3
3
LA
30
30
10
8
14
6
5
5
ME
31
30
11
14
6
8
2
6
MD
21
18
6
5
4
4
3
2
MA
23
19
6
7
4
3
4
2
MI
23
25
7
8
6
5
4
5
MN
21
20
9
7
6
5
2
5
MS
29
32
12
9
11
11
5
2
MO
26
28
10
12
9
7
5
4
MT
29
28
13
14
10
7
4
6
NE
24
22
9
10
8
5
2
4
NV
29
29
10
7
8
6
4
7
NH
20
24
9
9
4
4
4
2
NJ
23
21
7
6
5
4
2
3
NM
25
32
13
12
12
11
5
6
NY
26
20
5
5
4
4
3
3
Yellow shading = Percentage is higher from the national average at a statistically significant level.
Blue shading = Percentage is lower than the national average at a statistically significant level.
Red shading = Estimate should be interpreted with caution, because relative confidence interval is greater than 120 percent.
See the “About the data used in this report” section for more information.
7
Research
Brief
The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences,
nationally, by state, and by race/ethnicity
Table 2 cont. Prevalence of Individual ACEs, Nationally and by State
Hard to
cover
basics like
food or
housing
somewhat
or very
often
Lived
with
anyone
who
Parent or has a
guardian
problem
divorced
with
or
alcohol
separated or drugs
Lived with
anyone
mentally
ill,
suicidal,
or
severely
depressed
Saw or
heard
parents
Parent
or other
or
adults
guardian slap, hit,
served
kick, or
time in
punch in
jail
home
Parent
or
guardian
died
Victim of or
witness to
violence in
neighborhood
NC
30
26
10
8
10
7
3
4
ND
20
22
7
8
6
3
3
3
OH
31
28
11
9
11
8
4
5
OK
32
29
10
10
12
6
4
5
OR
29
25
11
10
7
6
2
3
PA
23
26
9
10
9
5
4
4
RI
25
26
8
10
6
5
4
7
SC
30
27
9
7
8
5
3
4
SD
25
24
12
8
10
6
1
4
TN
26
27
11
8
13
6
3
4
TX
28
27
11
7
9
7
4
4
UT
24
18
9
12
6
4
1
3
VT
25
24
12
11
6
5
3
3
VA
23
22
8
8
8
6
4
3
WA
23
23
10
11
5
4
2
2
WV
33
31
11
12
9
7
5
3
WI
23
23
8
9
9
6
3
4
WY
27
26
12
12
9
8
3
3
Yellow shading = Percentage is higher from the national average at a statistically significant level.
Blue shading = Percentage is lower than the national average at a statistically significant level.
Red shading = Estimate should be interpreted with caution, because relative confidence interval is greater than 120 percent. See the “About the
data used in this report” section for more information.
8
Research
Brief
The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences,
nationally, by state, and by race/ethnicity
Disparities by Race and Ethnicity Are Evident at National and
Divisional Levels
Table 3 shows the national prevalence of specific ACEs by racial and ethnic group.c Regardless of
race/ethnicity, economic hardship and the divorce or separation of a parent or guardian are the
most common ACEs reported for children. For white children, the next-most common experiences
are living with an adult with mental illness, and living with an adult with a substance use problem.
For black non-Hispanic children, parental incarceration is the next-most common ACE; for Hispanic
children, the next-most common are living with an adult with a substance use problem and
parental incarceration. Black non-Hispanic children are the most likely to have e…
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