- 1. In aIDition to the contribution margin figures already computed, now compute the PV ratio (also known as the CM ratio).
- 2. AID another column to your worksheet and compute the clinics per-visit revenue and costs.
- 3. Create a Cost-Volume-Profit chart. Refer to the chapter text along with Figure 76.

Study the FIFO and LIFO explanations in the chapter.

- a1. Use the format in Exhibit 81 to compute the ending FIFO inventory and the cost of goods sold, assuming $90,000 in sales; beginning inventory 500 units @ $50; purchases of 400 units @ $50; 100 units @ $65; 400 units @ $80.
- a2. Also compute the cost of goods sold percentage of sales.
- b1. Use the format in Exhibit 82 to compute the ending LIFO inventory and the cost of goods sold, using same assumptions.
- b2. Also compute the cost of goods sold percentage of sales.
- c. Comment on the difference in outcomes.

Study the Calculating Inventory Turnover portion of the chapter closely, whereby the cost of goods sold divided by the average inventory equals the inventory turnover.

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Divide the resulting figure by the expected life (also known as estimated useful life): 180,000 divided by 10 equals 18,000 depreciation per year for 10 years.

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Compute two inventory turnover calculations as follows:

- 1. Use the LIFO information in the previous assignment to first compute the average inventory and then to compute the inventory turnover.
- 2. Use the FIFO information in the previous assignment to first compute the average inventory and then to compute the inventory turnover.

Assume that Metropolis Health System (MHS) purchased equipment for $200,000 cash on April 1 (the first day of its fiscal year). This equipment has an expected life of 10 years. The salvage value is 10% of cost. No equipment was traded in on this purchase.

Straight-line depreciation is a method that charges an equal amount of depreciation for each year the asset is in service. In the case of this purchase, straight-line depreciation would amount to $18,000 per year for 10 years. This amount is computed as follows:

- Step 1. Compute the cost net of salvage or trade-in value: 200,000 less 10% salvage value or 20,000 equals 180,000.
- Step 2. Divide the resulting figure by the expected life (also known as estimated useful life): 180,000 divided by 10 equals 18,000 depreciation per year for 10 years.

Accelerated depreciation represents methods that are speeded up, or accelerated. In other words a greater amount of depreciation is taken earlier in the life of the asset. One example of accelerated depreciation is the double-declining balance method. Unlike straight-line depreciation, trade-in or salvage value is not taken into account until the end of the depreciation schedule. This method uses *book value*, which is the net amount remaining when cumulative previous depreciation is deducted from the assets cost. The computation is as follows:

- Step 1. Compute the straight-line rate: 1 divided by 10 equals 10%.
- Step 2. Now double the rate (as in
*double-declining method*): 10% times 2 equals 20%. - Step 3. Compute the first years depreciation expense: 200,000 times 20% equals 40,000.
- Step 4. Compute the carry-forward book value at the beginning of the second year: 200,000 book value beginning Year 1 less Year 1 depreciation of 40,000 equals book value at the beginning of the second year of 160,000.
- Step 5. Compute the second years depreciation expense: 160,000 times 20% equals 32,000.
- Step 6. Compute the carry-forward book value at the beginning of the third year: 160,000 book value beginning Year 2 less Year 2 depreciation of 32,000 equals book value at the beginning of the third year of 128,000.
- Continue until the assets salvage or trade-in value has been reached.
- Do not depreciate beyond the salvage or trade-in value.

Assume that MHS purchased equipment for $600,000 cash on April 1 (the first day of its fiscal year). This equipment has an expected life of 10 years. The salvage value is 10% of cost. No equipment was traded in on this purchase.

- 1. Compute the straight-line depreciation for this purchase.
- 2. Compute the double-declining balance depreciation for this purchase.

Assume that MHS purchased two aIDitional pieces of equipment on April 1 (the first day of its fiscal year), as follows:

- 1. The laboratory equipment cost $300,000 and has an expected life of = years. The salvage value is 5% of cost. No equipment was traded in on this purchase.
- 2. The radiology equipment cost $800,000 and has an expected life of 7 years. The salvage value is 10% of cost. No equipment was traded in on this purchase.

For both pieces of equipment:

- 1. Compute the straight-line depreciation.
- 2. Compute the double-declining balance depreciation.

This example shows straight-line depreciation computed at a five-year useful life with no salvage value. Straight-line depreciation is the method commonly used for financing projections and funding proposals.

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