HLS 4640 University of the Incarnate Week 5 US intelligence community Paper Assignment Instructions Submit a formal research paper using the research ques

HLS 4640 University of the Incarnate Week 5 US intelligence community Paper Assignment Instructions

Submit a formal research paper using the research question and hypothesis approved in Week 1, and the Lit Review submitted during Week 5 (attached).

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HLS 4640 University of the Incarnate Week 5 US intelligence community Paper Assignment Instructions Submit a formal research paper using the research ques
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The following format will be followed by all students:

Cover Sheet – APA formatted
Abstract 150 words max
Lit Review
Methodology (Do not simply explain that you are using “qualitative” methodology) what specific type…Case Study?/ What Theory are you using?


Your paper must be focused around a central question related to at least ONEof the following course objectives. You may use any one of these and be sure to relate your topic directly to a course objective in the thesis statement in your introduction paragraph.

Course Objectives

CO-1 Assess the evolving relationship between the U.S. intelligence community and the homeland security enterprise.

CO-2 Analyze the role of intelligence during the Cold War compared to its current role in countering 21st century homeland security threats.

CO-3 Assess the state of intelligence reform since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the U.S.

CO-4 Evaluate the capabilities and limitations of intelligence support to homeland security policy makers and practitioners.

CO-5 Analyze interagency and inter-organizational relationships and processes in intelligence support to homeland security.

Technical Requirements:

Length: 4 pages single spaced, 1″ margins, 12 pitch type in Times New Roman font left justified format.

Citations/References: You must use APA style for this assignment. The must be at least 15 scholarly sources.

The research question and hypothesis approved in Week 1

Homeland Security Support – Outline

Thesis Statement: The roles, expectations, and limitations of the Intelligence Community in supporting homeland security enterprise, and how it has evolved in the ODNI Era.

Roles of Intelligence Community
Enhancing cybersecurity
Combating violent extremism
Combating weapons of mass destruction
Expectations of Intelligence Community
Development of political movements that are driven by technology
Expecting to be in a position to deal with the consequences of immigration
Limitations of Intelligence Community
The information is coming from different cultures, and this variation can affect the effectiveness and use of data collected
Failure of an agency to disseminate information to another agency
How the role of the Intelligence Community Has Evolved in the ODNI Era
Its roles include collecting, analyzing, and disseminating intelligence activities to assist policymakers in the United States

Literature Review submitted Week 5 with Turnitin Report is attached. Running Head: INTELLIGENCE AND HOMELAND SECURITY
Literature Review: Intelligence and Homeland Security
Literature Review: Intelligence and Homeland Security
This literature review compares the roles, expectations, and limitations of the intelligence
community in supporting homeland security enterprise, as well as how these mechanisms have
evolved in the ODNI era. This literature review also provides a summary of limitations based on
local and international counterterrorism methods that are fought by law enforcement and other
security partners. The ways that intelligence is gathered and employed depicts the various
methods of importance for all jurisdictions involved (Bellavita, 2008). A common theme among
the literature used illustrates the structure in which the United States intelligence community
doesn’t facilitate intelligence sharing and the cooperation among the local level sectors. In
addition to this, other findings will be noted and portrayed in the efforts of explaining how such
roles, expectations, and limitations contribute to the enhancing of cybersecurity, combating
against violent extremism, and combating weapons that create mass destructions.
The expectations of the intelligence community are thought to help develop the political
stances in which have significantly been driven by technology methods. There are also other
methods employed that are to handle the immigration challenges that the United States faces
(Buchalter, 2007). Given that the information being received is coming from various cultures and
in variation, the effectiveness of collecting the data can be affected given that agencies fail in
disseminating the information accurately towards another agency. The roles of the United States
intelligence community has dramatically evolved in the ODNI era by how they collect, analyze,
and disseminate the intelligence activities in which helps to assist the policymakers throughout
the U.S. The politicians are generally briefed on strategic intelligence but are often made to
disregard the tactical intelligence information (Buchalter, 2007).
This was founded by a study conducted by Lowenthal. His research portrayed the various
techniques in which policymakers are left on essential information while only given information
great enough to take their opinions and thoughts so far. There is much overlooked when it
pertains to the composition and construction of the intelligence community. In his book
Intelligence from Secrets to Policy, Lowenthal explains the different mechanisms of the 9’11
intelligence reforms and that such improvements have also been much overlooked through opensource intelligence and signal intelligence as being a category in which requires the intelligence
community to be able to codify and standardize how the local capacities improve (Lowenthal,
2016). Therefore, his main goal is to express the various needs of creating further reforms that
would compose a construction and rely more heavily on the local programs that are active.
There are many senior counter-terrorism in which have led high stances towards the
unprecedented nature of terrorism and how terrorists threaten the environment, social, and
political viewpoints and well-being from citizens (Dale, Serafino, & Towell, 2008). Thus, there
is a demand for higher levels of commitment in which is sought to improve the intelligence
community while the sharing of climates will be found in practical solutions that have been
offered as baseline goals for the resources. Two challenges are significant to consider regarding
the levels of policy and how the systems emphasize local-level access and implementation. Such
problems have been characterized as being unclear and competing for implementation strategies
along with a lack of alternative approaches towards what and how information is shared (Dale,
Serafino, & Towell, 2008). Therefore, this creates a clear interagency policy which becomes
ineffective once applied.
Such challenges in areas should be addressed through a systematic and holistic approach
so that improvements could be made towards improving the methods of counterterrorism and
how its functions process across the many domains (Lowenthal & Marks, 2015). Moreover, there
must be more research completed so that a proper integration of the structured measures could be
efficiently applied towards all jurisdictions and so that the framework for analysis could be done
appropriately. The challenges that arise on a national level involve the overemphasizes that takes
place among the intelligence community towards the information-sharing reforms that have been
created on a national capital level (Lowenthal & Marks, 2015). These focus on the federal
agencies and are non-existent to the strategies that have been applied on the local or state levels.
The many information-sharing mechanisms that currently take place regards the high-risk
reporting of government-wide initiatives.
The local challenges that have arisen concerning intelligence communities have been
characterized as the failures of integration towards the sharing of information regarding
processes and access by different entities (Dale, Serafino, & Towell, 2008). For example, there is
an overemphasizes that considers the existing structures such as the Joint Terrorism Task Force
because they provide insufficient and unclassified about the appearance in improvements of the
sharing of information on the local levels. Although many samples provide ample enough
support towards the integration of structure that are facilitating the precise operations, there are
exclusive capabilities on the national standards that aren’t being included (Lowenthal & Marks,
This is to a restricted degree considering the way that the NCTC and other similar
understanding system structures; close by their colossal tricky compartmentalized information
workplaces, advanced logical cutoff points, and between office depiction; are national- level
affiliations supporting national counter-mental abuse exercises, anyway not so many close-by
assignments or assessments (Dale, Serafino, & Towell, 2008). At the area level, moves remain
for a relationship to get to comparative sorts of learning data that NCTC has at all request levels.
Additionally, the program head for ISE has no prompt expert over these close-by field
understanding assets and, along these lines, can’t pursue or ensure that field/neighborhood
workplaces approach all learning system limits or are pleasing under ISE establishment and
courses of action (Dale, Serafino, & Towell, 2008).
Because of the extent of existing enthusiastic research, approach appraisal, and
congressional introduction on data sharing, this suggestion does not give another course of action
assessment on mix focuses or comparative state-declared ISE limits. The pertinent assessment
chart does try not to survey mix focuses (urban, territorial) since there has been a ton of material
explained this eminent reaction for the 2004 IRTPA (Lowenthal & Marks, 2015). In any case,
this theory will in general how mix focus ISE-related endeavors are either missing or have been
insufficiently executed, leaving close-by people and accessories without ISE support.
Additionally, besides the get-together drove with NYPD’s John Miller, this evaluation plan
declined driving social occasions or different exercises, for example, reviews, because of the
criticalness and broadness of accessible scattered course of action information including
veritable methods, approach surveys, and earlier recommendations (Lowenthal & Marks, 2015).
Moreover, under interagency sensitivities and access objectives, this recommendation
keeps up a decent critical way from Federal Bureau of Investigation data sharing approaches, yet
it discusses the connection’s action in potential joined reactions for the difficulties inside ISE
(Lowenthal & Marks, 2015). Besides, this proposal bases on the data sharing inconveniences
between the national and neighboring levels. While there are some issues with data sharing
between these two get-togethers and state-level affiliations, the purpose of assembly of this
proposal stays with the under-investigated social and adjoining data sharing difficulties. At last,
this evaluation course of action does not inspect the mental maltreatment cases themselves yet
preferably rotates around the data-sharing systems and proper endeavors alone (Lowenthal &
Marks, 2015).
Developing dynamic capabilities in protecting the homeland is a national priority in
which has taken on many complex takings to cross the challenges. However, there are still many
improvements that are needed to ensure the areas of information being shared and transferred is
done efficiently (Dale, Serafino, & Towell, 2008). The tools used for such development and
implementations to enhance the areas of intelligence communication has dramatically improved,
but foreign intelligence must be different. The DOD’s abilities to complete these missions have
been met with notable forces, and projection in which has become dependent upon the
infrastructure of the U.S. the DOD isn’t enough alone to combat and address the vulnerabilities
that the United States critical infrastructure has nor is their efficiency on the direct control. There
have been systematic approaches towards the focus on redressing these issues, and the cyberbased components of the system should be integrated with the mission of the DOD so that the
efforts are protected (Dale, Serafino, & Towell, 2008).
For the adversaries, the ocean vessels, missiles that are reliant on the cruises, and the lowflying aircraft are efficient in the delivery of the information systems as the DOD ensures the
steps taken to counter mass destruction attacks by enemies. There are other delivery systems
concerning these threats, and delivery systems of biological weapons of mass destruction are
created through a master plan in which has been set for defense towards the lowest risks
(Lowenthal & Marks, 2015). The main goal for the Department of Homeland Security is
reducing and deter attacks on the U.S., reduce the vulnerabilities with the infrastructure, and
assist in the recovery if attacks were to occur.
Many steps could be implemented to improve the delivery and processing of information
intelligence while integrating the DHS, state, local, private, and federal sectors in collaborations.
The 2SR reorganization has proposed to the DHS that given such implementations would help
protect the security of the borders from future attacks has been called in for action since the 9’11
terrorist attack occurred (Gentry, 2015). Some of those improvements could be done through
integrating the information in a standardized method towards the formatting the intelligence
products that have been produced within the DHS sectors, establishing a department-wide
procedure in which conducts analysis and reviews of the information on all levels within the
intelligence community.
Evaluating how the DHS components are being utilized along with the homeland security
information and establishing a shared and comprehensive knowledge of technology network
while promoting connections among all sectors (Lowenthal & Marks, 2015). Information is
incredible at something that can have all the earmarks of being preposterously typical: keeping
policymakers all things considered accomplished on a tedious reason so they can choose
decisions with a reasonable sentiment of conviction. Given the repeat with which this occurs rather than the element grabbing crises – this is no little organization. Incredibly, it is similarly no
longer one that various people seem to regard.
Bellavita, C. (2008). Changing homeland security: What is homeland security? Homeland
Security Affairs, 4(2).
Buchalter, A. R. (2007, February). Military support to civil authorities: The role of the
Department of Defense in support of homeland defense. In Federal Research Division,
Library of Congress. http://www. loc. Gov/RR/frd/pdf-files/CNGR Milit-Support-CivilAuthorities. Pdf. Accessed (Vol. 12).
Dale, C., Serafino, N., & Towell, P. (2008, April). Organizing the US Government for National
Security: Overview of the Interagency Reform Debates. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
Gentry, J. A. (2015). Has the ODNI Improved US Intelligence Analysis? International Journal
of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 28(4), 637-661.
Lowenthal, M. M. (2016). Intelligence: From secrets to policy. CQ Press.
Lowenthal, M. M., & Marks, R. A. (2015). Intelligence Analysis: Is It as Good As It Gets?
International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 28(4), 662-665.
Randol, M. A. (2010). The Department of Homeland Security Intelligence Enterprise:
Operational Overview and Oversight Challenges for Congress. Congressional Research

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