Indiana Wesleyan University Starbucks Corporate Analysis and Audit Plan Obtain a copy of a recent annual report of a publicly held company with stock activ

Indiana Wesleyan University Starbucks Corporate Analysis and Audit Plan Obtain a copy of a recent annual report of a publicly held company with stock actively traded on the New York, NASDAQ or other over-the-counter exchanges (refer to notes for Workshop One). Answer the following questions:
What is the company’s industry?
What are its primary products or services?
What raw materials does the company use, if any?
How large is the company?
Annual sales revenue?
Total value of company assets?
Total number of employees?
Where is the company located?
What other people/companies are closely associated with this company?
Look at the annual report:
What image does it intend to convey?
What are the segments and functional contents of the report?
Obtain a copy of the company’s 10-k report for the same date as the annual report. Answer the following questions:
If the company has a 10-k that is not also its annual report: How does the 10-k differ from the annual report? Supplement the answers to the questions under #2 as appropriate.
If the annual report is the 10-k report, explain why you think the company uses the 10-k instead of an annual report. Compare to at least one other competitor’s annual report. Do they also use the 10-k?
Supplement the answers to the questions 2a and 2b as appropriate.
Obtain outside information about the company and its industry. Answer the following questions:
What are the key economic factors about the industry?
Where is the company in its life cycle?
What are the five or six most important factors for success in this business?
How does this company stand with respect to these factors?
Describe four or five key business risks related to the client’s business and industry.
What notable accounting considerations are there for companies in this industry?
What legal or regulatory matters are of concern?
What social matters are of concern?
Analyze the company’s financial strength:
Assess the financial strength of the company.
How is the financial strength likely to change in the next year or so?
What are its sources of capital and what is the value of the company’s capital?
How have capital markets responded to the company in the last year?
What is the quality of earnings?
How does the company compare with others in the industry?
Prepare a broad audit plan:
What types of material transactions are involved?
What types transaction cycles are involved
What are the high-risk areas?
What are the low-risk areas?
If management faced tremendous pressure regarding the entity’s financial performance, what opportunities might exist for them to engage in fraudulent financial reporting?
To what extent do you believe it will be appropriate to reduce assessed control risk?
How will the audit effort be allocated among geographical areas?
Will any areas of the audit require outside expertise?
Will there be reliance on an internal auditor(s)? If so, why? If not, why not?
What form of auditor’s report do you expect will be issued? What does it mean?
Your answers should show a high level of critical thinking.
Use proper spelling, grammar, etc. along with in-text citations and references where appropriate.

Adapted from: Arens, Alvin A., Elder, Randal J., & Beasley, Mark S. (2008). Auditing and assurance services: An integrated approach. Instructors Guide. (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Running Head: HOW TO PREVENT URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN OLDER
WOMEN?
How to Prevent Urinary Tract Infection in Older Women?
Nayvi Brennan
Florida National University
Dr. Wanda Morancy
04/17/2020
1
HOW TO PREVENT URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN OLDER WOMEN?
2
How to prevent urinary tract infections in older women?
Urinary tract infection is termed as the foray of an organism causing infection or disease on
any component of the urinary system in a human body. Elements of the urinary system
include the kidney, bladder, urethra, among others. Urinary tract infection is mostly caused
by bacteria found in the digestive system. It is known to cause discomfort in the urinary
system among infected individuals. The infection can be self-diagnosed, but, on many
occasions, it is identified through laboratory tests and imaging. (Yesim Alpay, 2018)
The study will seek to investigate in detail the preventive measures necessary to avoid
contraction of the infection among women. Causes of the infection will also be analyzed to
help achieve the objective of the study. Treatment methods and procedures will also be
necessary for the success of the study. Identification of the common signs and symptoms of
the infection will be crucial when conducting the study. Some of the common signs and
symptoms of the urinary tract infections include; pressing urge to urinate frequently, burning
urinating sensation, cloudy urine, difficulty when urinating, among others. All these
symptoms may seem as mere annoyance even though they are clear signs of urinary tract
illnesses.
The investigation on how to prevent the urinary tract infection in older women is of
much importance to nursing practice. Many women are usually unaware of the existence of
the urinary infection and the health problems associated with it. Most of these women seek
treatment misinformed on the possible infection they might be facing. The women, therefore,
are also unaware of the existence of preventive measures to the urinary tract infection
treatment. There is a need to identify preventive measures to the problem which are easily
accessible for both the nursing practitioners and the members of the society.
HOW TO PREVENT URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN OLDER WOMEN?
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PICOT Question: How to prevent Urinary Tract Infection among older women aged
between forty and sixty-five years using cranberry juice in comparison to the use of an
antibiotic drug (Cefaclor), employing a neck disability index to determine the expected
results within six months.
Population
Several studies have been conducted in a bid to identify how to prevent urinary tract
infections in older women. Controlled trials that are randomized among patients already
identified to suffer from urinary tract illness are best suited for the study. Already existing
patients suffering from the illness are crucial to preventive measures research as their health
records are easily and readily available (Erin M Schwenger, 2015). The study will hence
employ a sample size of one hundred and fifty patients whose medical records indicate
clinical signs and symptoms of the illness. A review that involves a randomized control
method is quite useful in observation and recording of results and outcomes from a study on
preventing urinary tract infection (Erin M Schwenger, 2015). The sample size will consist of
both male and female participants with the exemption of the elderly group of individuals. The
elderly will not account for the total population used in the study as they may either respond
slowly or not respond at all to the preventive measures employed in the study. Children will
also be exempted from the population under investigation hence allowing us to use an
average adult population. The population is expected to be between forty and sixty-five years
of age. The patient population will be expected to give both qualitative and quantitative
feedback on the procedures followed in the preventive measures and the outcome or result of
the measures.
Intervention
HOW TO PREVENT URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN OLDER WOMEN?
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The prevention or treatment employed will consist of non-drug measures. Primary
care is identified as the most effective treatment and prevention measure among urinary tract
system cases (Ahmed H, 2018). Primary care is also recognized as the most common among
patients, although there is a need to seek further treatment in hospitals upon escalation of the
illness. Primary care is typically administered by a health practitioner who, in most cases, is
usually a nursing practitioner. The nursing practitioner often employs necessary treatment
measures before organizing with other practitioners in situations that require specialized
treatment. Among the most commonly known preventive measures, cranberry juice appears
readily available for the patient population under study. Cranberry juice is identified as a
health solution to many illnesses, among them urinary tract infections. Our research,
therefore, will investigate the possible management of urinary tract illnesses with cranberry
and cranberry concentrates. It will go ahead to observe the patient’s reaction to the use of the
preventive measure and give a particular outcome.
Comparison
Antibiotic management of urinary tract infections is also considered an effective
preventive measure against the illness (Gharh, 2019). Antibiotics will also be investigated in
the study with a particular focus on the outcomes of treating urinary tract related illnesses.
There is also a need to investigate the possible side effects of prolonged use of the medical
drug. Cefaclor will be used in our study as the control group, where comparison will be made
to the use of either cefaclor antibiotic or cranberry to prevent the occurrence of the urinary
tract illnesses. The recurrence of the urinary tract infection will assist the study in
determining the effectiveness of preventive and treatment measures. The control group in the
study will be useful in determining the effectivity of cranberry as compared to antibiotic
drugs, which is cefaclor in our research.
HOW TO PREVENT URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN OLDER WOMEN?
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Outcome/Expected Result
The study intends to use a neck disability index to determine the outcome of the
preventive measures to prevent urinary tract infection in older women. The neck disability
index will involve the patient population under study self-reporting on their progress in
preventing the occurrence of the illness. The patients will fill in a daily form of a
questionnaire where they will indicate the preventive or treatment measures that they are
employing. Signs and symptoms of the illnesses is a vital record from the patients involved in
a study (Yesim Alpay, 2018). They will also need to indicate how often in a day they are
employing the preventive measure.
Most importantly, they will need to indicate their daily health wellness in regards to a
urinary tract illness. Through this, the study will have the ability to monitoring the health
progress of the patient while identifying the effectiveness of the cranberry juice in preventing
urinary tract illnesses. The neck disability index will, after that, be useful in analyzing the
results of the study hence concluding the investigation.
Time/ Duration of Data Collection
The study will be conducted within a time duration of six months, where expected
results will give a clear view of the study. During this time, the patients will be expected to
provide the study with comprehensive results on how to prevent urinary tract infection in
older women.
Keywords to be used in the study are; Antibiotic, Diagnosis, Neck Disability Index, Cefaclor,
Primary Care, Cranberry, Randomised Controlled Trials, Nursing practitioner, Effective
Treatment, Preventive Measures.
HOW TO PREVENT URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN OLDER WOMEN?
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Literature Review
Various studies have conducted in-depth investigations on measures that can be taken
to prevent the occurrence of urinary tract infection. These studies have focused on both
clinical and non-clinical measures that can be taken into consideration. Individuals and
patients with cases of recurring urinary tract infection have been of great help to these
investigations as they are a good population of the study. The existing knowledge will
provide a clear view of knowledge relevant to the study.
DeAnn J Liska (2016) notes that cranberries have been used for many decades for
both nutritional and health benefits. Among the health benefits associated with cranberries is
the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections. The article by Liska further
highlights that cranberries provide a conventional prevention and treatment agent for any
illness associated with the urinary tract system. Among the persons who have been benefited
by cranberry juice are individuals of the female gender who, on many occasions, suffer from
recurrent urinary tract infections. The article observes that cranberry use as a prevention
measure against urinary tract infection is more of a biological concept rather than a traditional
belief as presented by many. The cranberry juice possesses a substance that works to prevent
bacteria from sticking to the walls of any of the urinary system components.
Furthermore, different populations are noted to have divergent reactions to the
application of the juice as a preventive measure against UTIs. The article further notes that
antibiotics are, on many occasions, prescribed to those suffering from recurrent episodes of
the UTI. In these cases, antibiotics are prescribed as both a treatment and a preventive agent.
The use of the antibiotics repetitively may cause the body to adapt to the antibiotic, thus
creating or resulting in the body resisting the clinical drugs. Lifestyle through diet
observation has been identified as a crucial way of assisting women in fighting off the
HOW TO PREVENT URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN OLDER WOMEN?
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resisting force of the body against the prevention and treatment of the UTIs. The use of
nonantibiotic measures to fight UTI is, therefore, considered a healthy option for women.
Investigations and research on the role of cranberries have showcased positive results in the
reduction in recurrent UTIs among healthy individuals (Liska, 2016).
Nicolle (2016) has highlighted the need for daily intake of the cranberry juice in a bid
to fight off UTI. Cranberry juice is widely known to lower the pH levels of urine in a human
body. The article, however, highlights the need for intake of the cranberry juice in large
volumes to counter the high pH levels in the human urine. Many studies have opposed the
efficiency and effectiveness of the cranberry juice in preventing or treating urinary tract
infections. However, prolonged use of the cranberry juice may decrease the occurrence of the
urinary tract infection among women. The comparison between the use of antibiotics and the
use of cranberry does not present distinctive results. A question, therefore, arises on the
effectiveness of the juice in resolving problems associated with urinary tract infections.
Investigations and studies on us of cranberries to prevent and treat UTIs, as presented by the
article, have shown inconsistent and probably unreliable results (Nicolle, 2016).
Erin M Schwenger (2015) notes the numerous health effects brought about by the
common bacterial infection. Among the health effects associated with UTIs, as highlighted
by Schwenger, is kidney disfunction. The kidney is a major component of the urinary system;
thus, its disfunction may bring about adverse health complications. The article notes on the
high risk of women contracting UTIs as compared to men who possess a lower risk of
contraction. The report acknowledges the use of drug and non-drug measures in combating
the illness either by prevention or treatment. The antibiotics have shown inconsistent results
among recurring patients (Schwenger, 2015).
HOW TO PREVENT URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN OLDER WOMEN?
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Research Method, Aim of the Study, Sample, Outcomes, Measurement, And Results
A literature search on data concerning the prevention of urinary tract infection is
essential in giving reliable results. Systematic reviews will be useful in providing conclusions
on the study. A review of the existing data from the relevant literature creates an avenue for
the researcher to present overall results based on independent review analysis. Reports
obtained from the selected reviews will also be put under in-depth scrutiny (Liska, 2016). The
reports will assist in obtaining results on the efficiency of the cranberry in preventing or
treating urinary tract infections. The study will also use randomized control trials to
complement the literature reviews. The study will also compare the results drawn from
various literature and independent findings from the controlled trails. The literature search
will also put into consideration the critical areas of research conducted about urinary tract
infections (Ahmed H, 2017).
The study will focus on determining the impact of using cranberries to prevent urinary
tract infections in older women as compared to the use of antibiotics within six months. The
use of reviews will assist in analyzing feedback given on the use of cranberries to prevent or
treat UTIs in older women. The studies under investigation must consist of results obtained
within at least six months. The assessments on the use of cranberries to treat or prevent UTIs
will be independent for the study to achieve its principal aim (Ahmed H, 2017).
The study used a randomized controlled trial with a sample size of one hundred and
fifty women. The controlled sample size was observed for six months. The results were
collected using the neck disability index, where the women were expected to fill in a form on
any events about the study. At the end of the six months, the results were collected and
analyzed. Data from the literature survey was also obtained from reliable databases and
HOW TO PREVENT URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN OLDER WOMEN?
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compared to the results obtained from the study. All the results obtained were analyzed and
used to draw a comprehensive conclusion.
The results from the randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 150 were
measured through a comparison of the vagina oestrogens when using cranberry juice and
when using antibiotics (Cefaclor). Long term use of cranberry juice reduced urinary tract
infection from reoccurring by 30%. The result was obtained from three trials; n=75, a risk
ratio of 0.76 &CI of 0.61, and 0.95 at 95%CI. The cranberry juice was a statistically
significant determinant in preventing the reoccurrence of UTIs. The control variable,
cefaclor, was also considered an essential factor in the prevention of UTI reoccurrence. With
n=75, the risk ratio was at 0.31, while at 95%CI, 0.37 up to 2.56. However, from the neck
disability index, some of the respondents showcased resistance to the antibiotic, cefaclor
(Ahmed H, 2017).
Related literature showcased the recognition of antibiotics to prevent and treat UTIs.
Data from the literature and reliable databases showcase readmission of patients previously
under treatment using antibiotics, including cefaclor. Up to five works of literature were
relevant to the study showcasing the resistance of the human body against antibiotics.
However, prolonged use of the cranberry juice was considered an essential determinant in
reducing the likelihood of reoccurrence by up to 20% (Gharbi, 2019). However, from the
controlled random sample, drinking more than eight glasses of cranberry juice in a day for the
entire period failed to reduce the chances of reoccurrence. Most of the related literature also
showed inconsistent results among different women. The study, therefore, concludes the
importance of cranberry juice in preventing UTIs. However, the outcome of the cranberry
juice efficiency in preventing or treating UTIs is inconsistent among different women
(Ahmed, 2018).
HOW TO PREVENT URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN OLDER WOMEN?
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Summary
The study conducted by DeAnn J Liska (2016) indicated that cranberries were
effective in preventing UTIs among women. The study also established that the cranberries
prevented any disease that is associated with UTIs. However, research also indicated that
different people react differently to cranberry juice. Therefore, the treatment may not perform
as always expected. Nevertheless, such a group of people may get antibiotic prescriptions for
their UTIs infections (DeAnn J Liska, 2016). However, there is a concern about the
continuous use of antibiotics since the body may get used to the drugs and develop resistance.
Thus, antibiotics will no longer be effective in treating UTIs on such persons. Therefore,
DeAnn J Liska (2016) proposed the cranberry juice as a natural method of the treatment of
UTIs.
Similarly, the study by Nicolle (2016) indicated that a daily intake of cranberry juice
could lower the chances of contracting UTIs. The cranberry juice lowers the pH of the urine,
thus decreases the occurrence of infections since it discourages the growth of bacteria.
However, the study indicated no significant results between the use of cranberry juice and
antibiotics in preventing UTIs. The study by Erin M Schwenger (2015) also stated the
inconsistency of using antibiotics in the treatment of UTIs. These studies indicate that there
has been some research done on the use of both cranberry juice and antibiotics in treating
UTI. However, the research on the issue is not sufficient, resulting in divergent opinions
regarding the use of both methods. The gaps present in the studies indicate that the population
under study is not sufficiently represented. This can result in giving unreliable results.
Clinical Recommendations
Through the evidence gathered from previous research, physicians should recommend
cranberry juice to patients suffering from UTIs. The older women should get a daily
HOW TO PREVENT URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN OLDER WOMEN?
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prescription of the cranberry juice to lower their chances of contracting UTIs since the study
indicated that the likelihood of reoccurrence is reduced by twenty percent when cranberry
juice is used (Nicolle, 2016). The cranberry juice will make the urine more acidic,
discouraging the growth of the commonly UTI causing bacteria, E. coli. However, medical
practitioners should also prescribe antibiotic medication for those infected with UTI. This
should act as a treatment method, while cranberry juice is a preventive option. Nevertheless,
it is recommended that older women be taught on good habits that may supplement the use of
cranberries (DeAnn J Liska, 2016). For example, one should have good hygiene practices,
especially after using the toilet. Proper cleaning ensures that the growth of E. coli is
discouraged.
For the practice to become evidence-based, first, the question of how to prevent UTIs
among older women has to be asked. This question will act as guidance for the clinicians
since they will search for different methods of addressing the issue (Dang & Dearholt, 2017).
The second step involves searching for the most effective method. In this case, two methods
were proposed; using cranberries or antibiotics. The two approaches are then be evaluated
and the most effective one chosen. This is based on which presents the highest positive
results. Since the use of cranberries was proposed, it is then integrated into clinical practice
under the supervision of the clinicians and in collaboration with the patients (Dang &
Dearholt, 2017). The outcome of using cranberry juice should then be evaluated to
investigate effectiveness since its introduction. Positive feedback from both the patients and
medical practitioners will change the use of cranberry juice as an evidence-based practice.
HOW TO PREVENT URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN OLDER WOMEN?
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References
Ahmed H, D. F. (2017). Long-term…
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