PSYCH 305 Chamberlain College of Nursing Corrective Action Plan Paper In the last chapter of the text, the difficult discussion of taking corrective action

PSYCH 305 Chamberlain College of Nursing Corrective Action Plan Paper In the last chapter of the text, the difficult discussion of taking corrective action with employees whose performance is lacking is presented. For this assignment, write a 1-paragraph scenario in which you identity problem behavior in one of your direct reports. After you have written this scenario, follow the steps in the textbook on taking corrective action. Be certain that you integrate evidence from the text and outside sources to support your plan on action.

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Length: 2-3 pages (not including title page or references page)
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References page (minimum of 2 scholarly sources, including the textbook) “Essay 28:
Lightning Safety In the U.S. on average each year, more people are killed by
lightning (Figure 1) than by tornadoes, hurricanes, or strong winds. Compared to
all other thunderstorm-related hazards, only floods are responsible for more
average annual fatalities. According to NOAA’s National Weather Service, the
odds of being struck by lightning in one’s lifetime is 1:10,000 with most victims
surviving. The odds of being struck and killed by lightning is 1:600,000. Although
the danger of lightning cannot be ignored, some simple precautions will minimize
the risk of death or injury from lightning. No place is absolutely safe, but the risk
can be significantly reduced in even the most lightning-prone area of the nation,
south and central Florida, where an estimated 10 lightning flashes strike every
square kilometer of land annually. In their comprehensive investigation of
lightning mortality in the U.S., Walker S. Ashley and Christopher W. Gilson of
Northern Illinois University, reported that from 1959 to 2006, the Miami, Fort
Lauderdale, Miami Beach, FL, area ranked first among 25 metropolitan areas
with a total of 107 lightning fatalities. (The Ashley-Gilson report appears in the
October 2009 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.)
ESSAY 28 FIGURE 1Night-time lightning. [Photo by Jim Kurdzo/University of
Oklahoma, License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0] Even as a
thunderstorm approaches, some people believe that they are safe as long as it is
not raining. They continue doing what they have been doing, even if it is an
inherently dangerous activity during a thunderstorm (e.g., getting in that one last
hole of golf or inning of baseball). Unfortunately, lightning can strike well outside
the area of rainfall. In fact, “bolts from the blue” have been reported as far as 16
km (10 mi) beyond the main shaft of thunderstorm precipitation. In arid or semiarid regions, thunderstorm precipitation may completely vaporize in the dry air
below cloud base. Such thunderstorms still produce lightning. When a
thunderstorm threatens, use the flash-to-bang method to determine the distance
to the thunderstorm and whether it is approaching you (described elsewhere in
this chapter). If the time between flash and bang is 30 seconds or less, the wisest
strategy is to seek shelter in a house or other building, avoiding contact with
conductors of electricity that provide pathways for lightning. These include pipes
(do not shower), stoves (do not cook), and wires (do not use the computer or
land-line telephone). Electrical appliances pose no hazard if grounded, but why
tempt fate by assuming they are properly wired? It is a good idea to wait 30
minutes following the last thunderclap before resuming outdoor activities as new
thunderstorms cells can still develop behind the main line of thunderstorms.
Some confusion surrounds the safety of motor vehicles during a lightning storm.
Contrary to popular belief, the rubber tires of a motor vehicle provide occupants
with little or no protection from lightning. When lightning strikes a motor vehicle,
the electrical current is conducted over the metal surface of the vehicle, through
the steel frame to the tires, and then to the ground. Without direct contact with
the metal frame, passengers usually escape injury. All things considered, a
person is much safer inside a motor vehicle (not a convertible, the open back of a
pickup truck, or a golf cart) than outside during a thunderstorm. What about the
lightning threat to aircraft? Pilots steer clear of thunderstorm cells not only
because of lightning but also because of the associated strong wind shear and
the possibility of hail. All large aircraft (and many small ones) carry so-called
static discharge wicks on various trailing edges of the craft that are designed to
bleed electrical charges back into the atmosphere. This prevents a build-up of
electrical charge and lessens the chance of a lightning flash between clouds and
aircraft. If caught out in the open and a building or motor vehicle is not accessible
when a thunderstorm approaches, find shelter under a cliff, in a cave, or in a low
area, such as a ravine, a valley, or even a roadside ditch (not subject to flooding).
A group of people in the open should spread out, staying several meters apart.
Avoid (1) tall, isolated structures, such as trees, telephone poles, and flagpoles,
(2) metallic objects, such as wire fencing, rails, wire clotheslines, bicycles, and
golf clubs, (3) high areas, such as the tops of mountains, hills, and roofs, and (4)
bodies of water such as swimming pools and lakes. Stay off riding lawn mowers
and farm tractors (unless equipped with an enclosed metal cab). While isolated
trees in open spaces are hazardous, a thick grove of small trees surrounded by
taller trees may offer safer haven. If outdoors and your hair stands on end or your
skin tingles, lightning may be about to strike nearby. Immediately crouch down
with only the balls of your feet touching the ground, placing your hands on your
knees, and bend forward. In this way, you present the smallest possible target for
a return stroke. Do not lie flat on the ground because if lightning does strike, the
electrical charge running along the ground can pass through you. Such a charge
traveling through your body between your head and feet while you lie on the
ground will deliver much more electrical energy to you than if the charge runs
along the ground between your feet as you crouch. Furthermore, unless they are
wet, shoes will reduce the charge conducted to your body should a current move
along the ground. Contrary to popular belief, lightning can strike the same
structure more than once (obviously as long as the structure was not destroyed).
The top of the Empire State Building in New York City typically is struck more
than 20 times a year, and on one occasion was struck 15 times in only 15
minutes. About 90% of people struck by lightning survive, and two-thirds of
people struck by lightning recover fully. Most survivors are jolted by a nearby
lightning flash and are not hit directly. Such near misses, however, can produce
severe burns because of the intense heat generated by lightning. If an electrical
current from a lightning strike passes through the body, however, it can disrupt a
special system in the heart that generates rhythmical electrical impulses that
control the regular contractions of the heart muscle. If the disruption is severe,
heart muscles are unable to work together and cardiac output declines. Blood
flow can slow to the point that body tissues are damaged by an inadequate
supply of oxygen and nutrients, a condition known as circulatory shock. However,
the body possesses a number of mechanisms that attempt to return cardiac
output to normal. Emergency medical personnel should be summoned
immediately for a lightning-strike victim. Mean-while, cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR), mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, or a defibrillator may revive
the victim. Covering the victim with a blanket or additional clothing will reduce
heat loss from the body. It is a myth that victims of lightning strikes carry an
electrical charge; they should be attended to without delay. Treatment can aid
bodily processes that counteract shock. Hence, if circulatory shock is not severe,
the victim usually recovers. With severe electrical disruption of the heart,
circulatory shock can reach a critical stage whereby the shock initiates more
shock. That is, reduced cardiac output causes the circulatory system (including
the heart) to deteriorate, which in turn, causes a further reduction in blood flow.
This condition, known as progressive shock, can trigger a vicious cycle of
cardiovascular deterioration. Without immediate medical intervention,
progressive shock can rapidly reach such severity that the person cannot be
saved. The National Weather Service (NWS) stresses the importance of lightning
safety. For more information about lightning safety and the ongoing efforts to
promote lightning safety around the United States, see the NWS lightning
resource website:”
“Basic Understandings
•A thunderstorm is a mesoscale weather system produced by strong convection
currents that surge to great altitudes in the troposphere and on occasion may
push into the lower stratosphere. The life cycle of a thunderstorm cell consists of
a three-stage sequence: towering cumulus, mature, and dissipating. •During the
towering cumulus stage, cumulus clouds build vertically and laterally, updrafts
characterize the entire system, and there is no precipitation. The mature stage
begins when precipitation reaches Earth’s surface. At that stage, updrafts occur
alongside downdrafts and the system attains peak intensity. During the
dissipating stage, subsiding air spreads through the entire cell and clouds
vaporize. •A thunderstorm usually consists of more than one cell, each of which
may be at a different stage in its life cycle. A cluster of thunderstorm cells may
track in a different direction than the individual constituent cells. •Most
thunderstorms develop in maritime tropical air as a consequence of uplift (1)
along fronts, (2) on mountain slopes, (3) via convergence of surface winds, or (4)
through intense solar heating of Earth’s surface. •Thunderstorms develop along
boundaries within a maritime tropical air mass, as a squall line along or ahead of
a cold front, or in a mesoscale convective complex (MCC). MCCs account for a
substantial portion of growing season rainfall over the Great Plains and Midwest.
•Worldwide, thunderstorms are most common over the continental interiors of
tropical latitudes. In North America, thunderstorm days are most frequent in
central Florida where converging sea breezes induce uplift of maritime tropical
air, while thunderstorms are also frequent on the eastern slopes of the central
and southern Rockies, associated with heating of the mountain slopes and
orographic lifting. Convection is inhibited and thunderstorms are unlikely to
develop in air masses that reside or travel over relatively cold surfaces and are
thereby stabilized. •Severe thunderstorm cells typically form as part of a squall
line ahead of a fast-moving, well-defined cold front associated with a mature
extratropical cyclone or as isolated supercells. The polar front jet stream causes
dry air to subside over a surface layer of maritime tropical air. This produces a
layering of air that sets the stage for explosive convection and development of
severe thunderstorm cells. •Lightning is a brilliant flash of light produced by an
electrical discharge within a cloud, between clouds, or between clouds and the
ground. Cloud-to-ground lightning consists of a very rapid sequence of events
involving stepped leaders, bright return strokes, and dart leaders. •What causes
electrical charge separation within a cumulonimbus cloud is not well understood,
but collisions between graupel and ice crystals, plus updrafts and downdrafts
within the cloud, likely play important roles. •Some thunderstorm cells produce
downbursts, which are intense downdrafts that spread out (diverge) at Earth’s
surface as potentially destructive winds. Based on size, a downburst is classified
as either a macroburst or microburst. A squall line or mesoscale convective
complex sometimes produces a family of destructive straight-line downburst
winds, known as a derecho. •A flash flood is a short-term, localized, and often
unexpected rise in stream level causing the stream to flow over its banks. Flash
flooding is especially a hazard in mountainous terrain, where steep slopes
channel excess runoff into narrow stream and river valleys, as well as in urban
areas, where impervious surfaces cause excess runoff to collect in low-lying
areas. •Hail develops in intense thunderstorm cells characterized by strong
updrafts, great vertical development, and an abundant supply of supercooled
water droplets. •A tornado is a small mass of air that whirls rapidly about a nearly
vertical axis and is usually made visible by condensed water vapor (funnel
cloud), and dust and debris drawn into the system. •An exceptionally steep
horizontal air pressure gradient between the tornado center and outer edge is the
force ultimately responsible for the violence of a tornado. •Most tornadoes occur
in spring within a corridor stretching from Texas northward to southeastern South
Dakota, from central Iowa eastward to central Indiana, and along the Gulf Coast
states. •Synoptic weather conditions that favor the outbreak of tornadoes
progress northward (with the Sun) from the Gulf Coast in early spring to southern
Canada by early summer. •When a tornado strikes, very high winds, a strong
updraft, subsidiary vortices, and an abrupt air pressure drop are responsible for
considerable property damage. The Enhanced Fujita Scale rates the intensity of
tornadoes based on winds estimated from structural damage. The majority of
tornadoes cause light or moderate damage (EF-0 or EF-1), but most fatalities are
due to rare violent tornadoes that cause devastating or incredible damage (EF-4
or EF-5). •Most intense tornadoes develop out of a mesocyclone that forms in the
strong updraft of a supercell thunderstorm. A rotating mesocyclone circulation is
generated by the interaction between a thunderstorm updraft as it encounters
strong vertical shear in the horizontal wind. •Doppler radar can monitor a tornadic
circulation as it evolves from a mesocyclone and before it descends to Earth’s

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