PSYCH211 SNHU Module 8 Human Development Factors Milestone 1 Final Project InstructionsFor this assignment, submit your completed Literature Worksheet. You

PSYCH211 SNHU Module 8 Human Development Factors Milestone 1 Final Project InstructionsFor this assignment, submit your completed Literature Worksheet. You should have completed all sections of the worksheet (Article One, Article Two, and Article Three) using the articles from your chosen track that were presented in Modules One, Two, and Three.The information in this worksheet will inform the literature review section of your final project submission. The final project submission is due in Module Eight.remember we did the first part of this Milestone? This is the second part. Running Head: LITERATURE REVIEW SHEET
Keliesha Lawman
Southern New Hampshire University
Article One
Citation of Literature
Mattson, S. N., Calarco, K. E., & Lang, A. R. (2006). Focused and shifting attention in children
with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Neuropsychology, 20(3), 361.
Authors’ Claims
While introducing the case study, the authors speculated that heavy prenatal exposure to
alcohol among the children leads to the attention deficit. The evaluation was done using three
paradigms; auditory focus, visual focus, and visual-auditory focus. It was found that for any shift
in the conditions to which the children were exposed, the participant group that was exposed to
alcohol reacted slowly. The outcomes indicated that children with heavy prenatal exposure to
alcohol portray pervasive deficits in auditory and visual attention.
The Influence of Human Development Factors
The article authors explored the trend of prenatal exposure to alcohol among young
children between 9 and 14 years of age to establish an effect on visual and auditory attention. They
noted that many of the alcohol manufacturers fill the general public with adverts of various brands
of alcohol. Similarly, the authors concluded that for families having drinking members, especially
the mothers, children exhibit signs of prenatal exposure. Therefore, drinking among the mothers
has extra effects which will be manifested in their children through the attention deficit.
Historical Significance
The study of alcoholism among human beings has been studied historically, and various
findings have often limited the study to adults or senior beginning from age 25. The findings from
this study show that alcoholism has extended to young children under 15 years. Alcoholism in this
regard is prenatal among the children. Such a realization demands developmental psychologists to
look for new ways to counter factors that have led to underage alcoholism. It can be concluded
from this study that the society is quite dynamic so that the development psychologist need to
continue researching to address human dynamics.
Research Methods and Design
Data was obtained from forty children of ages: 9 to 14 who were chosen for the study. The
sample was chosen from a large group to be used in the study of teratogenicity of alcohol. For
purposes of comparison, the sample was divided into two groups so that one group was exposed
to prenatal alcohol exposure while the other one was not exposed. The group that was exposed to
alcohol were all born to mothers who abused alcohol all the days of their lives. Two samples were
all matched closely in terms of age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
The study involved young children between 15 and 14 years who voluntarily joined the
unbiased sample. All the participants were taken for the study with the consent of their parents.
These parents offered themselves willfully for the study, and were at liberty to depart should they
felt uncomfortable with the study.
Article Two
Citation of Literature
Watson, S. M., Westby, C. E., & Gable, R. A. (2007). A framework for addressing the needs of
students prenatally exposed to alcohol and other drugs. Preventing School Failure:
Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 52(1), 25-32.
Authors’ Claims
As the authors summarized his study, they settled on the idea that prenatal exposure to
alcohol and other drugs among young children below 14 years of age will suffer executive function
deficits. Such functions include paying attention and recalling information. Students who have
been exposed prenatally to alcohol and other drugs have difficulties in learning new materials,
shifting strategies, and encoding information.
The Influence of Human Development Factors
The trends and cases of prenatal alcohol exposure among elementary school children were
the primary interest of the authors, focusing on the effects of prenatal alcoholism on the behavior
and performance of young children. They concluded that children who have been exposed to
alcohol during pregnancy have poor outcomes on the ability to regulate moods and remain
motivated. Such children also have poor skills in using both verbal and non-verbal cues. Similarly,
their problem-solving skills are limited.
Historical Significance
Developmental psychologists have explored prenatal alcohol exposure among children and
concluded that the prefrontal part of the brain is greatly affected by exposure to alcohol during
pregnancy. This part of the brain is responsible for executive functioning. Students who are victims
of prenatal alcohol exposure need special programs, including cognitive modeling, which
reprograms memories of such children.
Research Methods and Design
The sample of children who were chosen for this study was subjected to a Trail Making
Test, which uses devices that measure various cognitive domains, including divided attention,
flexibility, visual tracking, and psychomotor speed. Their performance in a test was determined by
the attention, visual-directional scanning, visual-motor speed, and the ability to handle serial
information. Stroop color and word tests were also administered to establish the comprehensive
executive functioning of the participants.
Ethical concerns of research were cautiously observed in this study considering how the
study was conducted. Parents were at liberty at resigning their children from participation in the
study, and the students’ information was never disclosed to anyone. The parents whose children
participated were permitted to scrutinize the study process to ascertain that it was in harmony with
their expectation and that it does not jeopardize the privacy and comfort of participant students. In
this regard, the study remained consistent with ethical concerns in the history of human
development studies.
Article Three
Citation of Literature
Dennis, T., Bendersky, M., Ramsay, D., & Lewis, M. (2006). Reactivity and regulation in children
prenatally exposed to cocaine. Developmental psychology, 42(4), 688.
Authors’ Claims
According to the authors of the article, children that were prenatally exposed to cocaine
stand a risk of adjustment problems during their early age development because of higher reactivity
and minimized regulation whenever they encounter challenging activities. Children, especially
young boys who were exposed to cocaine prenatally are very disruptive and quick to express
The Influence of Human Development Factors
While introducing their study, the authors indicate that the ability to initiate changes in
behavior and manage physiological and emotional reactivity is one of the most crucial
development capacities in early childhood. For nearly two decades, several studies have shown
that prenatal exposure to cocaine will affect the functioning of the nervous system, and it usually
increases the risk of developing problems related to regulation and reactivity at infancy. Children
who were exposed prenatally to cocaine exhibit impaired neurobehavioral functioning.
Historical Significance
Prenatal exposure to cocaine among the children, especially the boys, are at risk of
difficulties in behavior regulation as well as frustration reactivity. Former studies on this concept
have shown that environmental factors including poverty, stressful life, and maternal isolation can
negatively impact on the development results, which are more prevalent among the children who
were prenatally exposed to cocaine.
Research Methods and Design
The study involved 191 mothers with their children (95 boys and 88 girls). On average, the
children were 4.5 years old, with 86% of them being African Americans. 11% of this number were
European American, while 3% were Asian and Hispanic Americans. Mothers did not discriminate
race regarding the use of Cocaine. Of the 174 Children chosen for the study, 65 were exposed to
cocaine during pregnancy, while 109 were not. During the study, a set of toys were arranged on
the floor to arouse child play. Several related tasks, including that of frustration, were administered
in the same order to study individual responses of children and hence evaluate their reactivity and
Ethical concerns were considered to the latter in the study. Mothers were invited to
participate in the study voluntarily. The researchers obtained the consent of parents and explained
to them the toy-experiment, which was used to assess the children. Since participation was
voluntary, researchers gave incentives in the form of vouchers for parents to use at the local stores.

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