The Sinaitic Covenant Essay 1. course descraption.(just rying to help you to figuring out what kind of class it is ) : From the biblical era to the America

The Sinaitic Covenant Essay 1. course descraption.(just rying to help you to figuring out what kind of class it is ) : From the biblical era to the American experiment, the Western legal tradition encompasses primitive, divine, natural, canon, secular, and common law. This course examines the key legal documents and issues of the tradition including the Code of Hammurabi, the Ten Commandments, the trials of Socrates and Jesus, the Magna Carta, the Rule of Law, and Common law. Usually Offered: fall and spring.

2. please ready writing reqire ment and guidline first, and them read two material.

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3/ those two matetrial is what we leaned from the class recently, I wish this gonna hlep you to write this, you can decide the topic, just make it sounds reasonable that would be great. Essay Writing Guide
This Style Guide serves as an aid to you in the writing of papers assigned in your
classes. For some students this will provide a review of high school English composition
basics. However, for many, the Style Guide is a much needed template for constructing
solid essays. Contrary to popular belief, the assigning of papers as part of the learning
process is not a device contrived by faculty bent on making students’ lives miserable.
Being able to write a coherent paper is critically important for effective communication
in the so-called “real world.”
To become good writers, students must understand that their writing is the graphic
representation (to those reading their works) of their level of command, sophistication,
and fluency in English or in any language in which they write. Students’ writings
demonstrate how well they comprehend, reason, analyze, and draw conclusions from
research and how clearly and concisely they express their ideas and opinions. It also
demonstrates to the reader just how seriously the endeavor has been pursued. That the
quality of the completed product reflects specifically on the writer, should never be lost
sight of when creating a work that will be read and subsequently evaluated by others.
When approaching the writing of any assignment, a student should determine who
comprises his/her audience. For the most part, the reader will be the instructor. While it is
natural to conclude that the instructor knows more about the subject than the student, the
student should not presume that the instructor will automatically understand what he/she
means and will fill in gaps in the discourse. That said, often exams given as papers have a
limited number of pages and professors may assume a level of common knowledge in
approaching the paper. However, if the assignment is a research or term paper, the author
should write as though the reader knows nothing about the topic.
A common mistake in writing is to leave steps out of an argument of fail to
clarify links between ideas. This mistake often arises because writers are naturally
inclined to fill in the missing steps or links from their own internal thought processes.
Each writer brings in a unique and individual frame of reference to the act of writing,
which is the context through which writers process what he/she is trying to communicate.
Similarly, readers bring in their own distinct frames of reference to interpret what has
been written. As a result, instead of being able to fill in the gaps, readers may be confused
and completely misinterpret the text, guess incorrectly as to what the missing elements
should be, or simply to decide the writer does not have a strong case to make. Therefore,
always strive to make the implicit explicit.
Choosing a Topic
Step 1: Determine the purpose of the paper.
Consider asking yourself the following:
▪ What is the reason you are writing it?
Exam, Term Paper, Personal Statement
▪ What type of paper is it?
Research, Persuasive, Informative/Expository, Narrative
Step 2: Choose a Topic
If topic is assigned by the professor, decide on a side you want to argue or
the case you want to present
▪ Choose an approach for which you understand the material best
▪ Remember to be able to present (and refute) any opposing views
coherently as well
If the topic is fully your choice:
▪ Think of broad areas of the course that interest you
▪ Examine relevant current events and articles briefly and take note
of what debates you take issue with, or have questions on. Ask
yourself, “Which topic warrants further study?”
▪ Ensure that there is enough research available on your ideal topic,
and that you can coherently evaluate the various approaches to the
issue at hand
Step 3: A Few Cautions
▪ Make sure your topic can be addressed in given page limits
▪ Talk to your professor- It is a good idea to simply propose your
topic to your professor for approval
▪ Remember, the more interesting the topic is to you, the more
interesting it will be for your audience to read
Introductions serve two primary purposes: to introduce the reader to the subject
and to contain a thesis statement that establishes the writer’s critical point of view. A
good introduction should capture the reader’s interest and invite them to continue reading
the rest of the paper. The opening paragraph of your paper is the reader’s first impression
of your argument and your writing style. It sets the tone for the remainder of your paper.
Therefore, the introduction should be concise and engaging. Though your introduction
should provide relevant information pertaining to your topic, the substance of the
contextual basis may vary.
For research papers consider including an exciting historical moment that has
caused this area of academia to grow, or an emerging debate on your issue. In both
persuasive and research papers, you should acknowledge the different schools of thought
and various approaches to the question you are answering. Additionally, in informative
pieces, key terms and definitions may be pertinent, or background on the historical
setting of the paper. Be careful not to make your introduction too lengthy or detailed.
You are simply establishing a contextual basis applicable to your topic and are leading
readers to your thesis statement. At the conclusion of your introduction, the reader should
know why the topic is being discussed, what your argument is, and how you intend to
proceed with the structure and organization of your paper.
Your thesis statement should be the last sentence in your introduction. It serves as
an extremely concise and condensed representation of your argument but also be bold
and direct in nature. A strong thesis statement is thus best set up as a type of comparison
argument with three concrete reasons that support your position. (It is duly noted that
some arguments may warrant two or four justifications, but three is a general rule of
thumb.) Apart from presenting your argument, it is critical that the organization of your
thesis statement correlate directly to the structure of your paper. The reader should be
able to read your thesis statement and automatically recognize:
1) Your argument
2) Three points the reader is to remember about your justification
3) The order in which you present your argument
Example: While some high schools’ English classes adequately prepare students
for college compositions, professors have found that presenting a review of writing
basics to their students teaches them to craft direct theses, improve the lucidity of their
papers, and forces them to draw their own conclusions from given material.
From the thesis above, the reader knows that:
1) You think it is important for all students to review the rules of good
writing even though there is a dissenting group of students for which
the review is extraneous.
2) Reviewing the rules of good writing is important because it will help
students a) write stronger theses, b) be more articulate in their work,
and c) be innovative in their compositions
3) In your first paragraph(s) you will discuss how theses have been
improved through this review of writing rules. In your next
paragraph(s) you will express how reviewing proper writing styles
creates more coherent papers. In your final paragraph(s) you will
demonstrate how this review of writing brings students to think
critically and innovatively in their compositions.
The body of your paper is the presentation of the arguments you have chosen that
best supports your thesis. Each argument is presented in individual paragraphs. Readers
want to be able to read a piece of work with clarity and ease so the author’s goal should
be to convey information in a clear, concise, and logical manner.
The following is a general outline of your paper (though the number of
paragraphs may vary depending upon word limitations):
a. Background Information
b. Last sentence should be thesis
Body Paragraph 1
a. Topic Sentence introducing the first supporting argument of your
b. Evidence/Explanation of that argument
c. Summarize paragraph and transition to second supporting argument
Body Paragraph 2
a. Topic Sentence introducing the second supporting argument of your
b. Evidence/Explanation of that argument
c. Summarize paragraph and transition to third supporting argument
Body Paragraph 3
a. Topic Sentence introducing the third supporting argument of your
b. Evidence/Explanation of that argument
c. Summarize paragraph
Conclusion- will be discussed below
The first sentence of each paragraph should consist of a topic sentence which
serves two purposes. Firstly, a topic sentence expresses the main idea of the paragraph,
which is simply your supporting argument. Secondly, a topic sentence serves in itself as a
transition. A topic sentence, thus, serves to summarize the key idea of your paper, and
establishes the content of the discussion in the coming paragraph. It is of the utmost
importance that each topic sentence is directly linked to the overall argument of your
paper. This is why when constructing topic sentences; you need to continually ask, “How
does this sentence advance my thesis statement?” Though such repetition of your thesis
may appear redundant, it will guarantee that your reader understands how your
supporting arguments validate your thesis.
To continue with the aforementioned thesis, sample topic sentences (including
both of their functions as transitions and summaries) for three body paragraphs are
Topic Sentence 1: Despite the minority of students who find a review of writing
basics banal, many freshmen find the task of crafting theses much easier after minor
supplemental instruction.
Topic Sentence 2: While some students are well versed in analytical writing, a
model outline refreshes structure and organization in writing, resulting in a more
coherent composition.
Topic Sentence 3: Finally, though a number of students have solid writing
abilities, a review of essay craftsmanship allows students to draw their own varied
conclusions from the same material.
Once you establish the topic sentence, the development of your paragraph should
focus on the rationale or explanation behind your specific supporting argument. Only
points that directly support, discuss, or elaborate the topic sentence should be included.
All of your evidence should be empirically based whether through statistics, expert
testimony, current events, or quotes from textbooks and other course materials. In
organizing the structure of a paragraph, it maybe helpful to think of the logical sequence
as a staircase. You may begin anywhere on the staircase with your thesis statement, and
may proceed to build your case, or deconstruct another’s argument. However, whether
you choose to ascend or descend the staircase, you must continue moving in that
direction without skipping any steps toward your conclusion of your paragraph. While
you are free to choose the original starting point with your topic sentence, you must
choose carefully because you can never circle back in the same paragraph with your
argument. However, the concluding sentence of each paragraph should reconnect to the
topic sentence to close discussion on that supporting argument of your thesis in
preparation for the next body paragraph.
The conclusion is your last opportunity to sell your reader on your paper’s thesis
and its supporting arguments. MAKE IT COUNT! When writing the conclusion, do not
assume that your arguments have been so clear and compelling that the reader has
absorbed them in the way you intended, or understood them or drawn the proper
inferences from them. Instead, take this opportunity to highlight, or reiterate in highly
abbreviated form, the key points, themes or arguments from the body of your paper that
you believe best support your thesis. As a starting point for your conclusion, take your
thesis statement, your topic sentences, and concluding sentences from each body
paragraph and form a summarizing paragraph. Rather than directly restate the arguments
however, demonstrate how they prove your thesis. Avoid concluding the paper only with
a rephrased thesis statement or inserting pertinent evidence and new arguments that was
not mentioned in the body of your paper. However, particularly in research papers, you
can draw out fresh implications from previously introduced arguments and propose topics
for further investigation. Expanding on the general significance of major ideas or
pointing to the broader ramifications of key points that your paper has discussed is often
a good way of adding some rhetorical flourish to your conclusion by giving your reader
something extra to take away from your work.
Before you hand your paper in…
Over the semesters, students and professors alike have made a few suggestions
that may help give your paper an edge over your classmates’. First, the authors of this
guide suggest that you read your paper aloud. Often, by reading the paper out loud, you
will hear missed points, unintended impressions, incorrect conclusions, or an erratic flow
of ideas. Additionally, you should be able to read your introduction, thesis, topic
sentences, and conclusion and have an extremely good sense of what your paper is
arguing. Make sure that the topic sentences match the organization of your thesis and
vice versa. Finally, what should be a given is to please check spelling and grammar. This
final editing should result in a well written, sophisticated, scholarly work.
We hope you have found this to be a valuable resource that you will be able to reference
in multiple future writing endeavors. Please use this writing guide to your advantage.
Western Legal Tradition
Exam Style Guide
All of the formal rules of English grammar apply to this exercise. Correct spelling and
punctuation are important, and your software’s ‘spell-checker’ program can prove to be a
false friend. Below I list the key style rules that have been specially adapted to this
exercise. These rules are not intended as merely helpful suggestions. They are
mandatory. They are designed to encourage you to write as clearly and concretely as
possible. They are also designed to make you a more self-conscious writer, to think
through the pros and cons of your stylistic options in constructing a sentence or
1. Never use contractions, such as “don’t” for “do not” of “isn’t” for “is not”.
2. Do not use filler expressions, such as “there is” or “it is”, especially at the beginning
of sentences. All indefinite pronouns, such as “it”, should have a clearly discernible
antecedent (which is always the immediately preceding noun).
3. Do not refer to yourself in the essay by using expressions such as “I think”, “I feel,”
“I believe”, or “in my opinion”. You are the author of the essay, so the reader can
reasonably assume that any expressions of opinion are your own unless otherwise
4. One clause rule: you may (but need not) use one dependent or subordinate clause in
any single sentence. You may not use more than one subordinate clause in a single
5. You may not use more than two prepositional phrases in any one sentence.
6. Do not use colons (“:”) and semi-colons (“;”). I recognize that these forms of
punctuation are normally allowed, but they tempt too many students to write run-on
7. Use active rather than passive verb constructions. Consider the following examples.
The first is active, while the second is passive. Sentence 1: “I hate the passive voice.”
Sentence 2: “The passive voice is liked by me.” The first is clear and direct; the
second is awkward and indirect. Avoid the passive voice at all costs.
8. No paragraph should contain more than two hundred words; that is, comprise more
than 2/3rds of a single typewritten page.
9. In general, avoid run-on sentences.
10. Never use slang expressions.
11. Never use dashes (“-“) in a sentence, but this rule does not apply to hyphens used as
punctuation marks to designate compound words.
12. Never use the words “this” or its plural “these” by themselves. They should always
modify a noun.
13. Never begin a sentence with the words “And” & “Or”.
14. Do not end prepositional phrases with the preposition. For example, instead of
writing “I do not know what this matter referred to,” write “I do not know to what this
matter referred.”
15. Do not use parentheses that include more than one word.

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