University at Albany Week 9 Police Harassment Criminal Justice Research Paper Topic: Why some neighborhoods are dangerous and hostile towards police, and how police can manage to serve and protect them anyways. Requirement: 12 pt. Times New Roman, double spaced, 1” margin Consistent formatting Research, description, AND analysis Rubric:Extent and quality of research Analysis (use of research to make compelling arguments, the logical sequential presentation of findings and recommendations, use of subheadings to organize material and distinguish topical sections, etc.) Quality of writing (strong introductory and concluding paragraphs, correct spelling and grammar, short clear sentences, etc.) Extent to which directions were followed (four-to-six pages in length, double spacing, proper footnoting, submitted online prior to the deadline, etc.) Use 3 academic sources in APA reference form. The more details is in the ppt file. 201 Discussion
March 9 Research Paper Outline
By 3/9 11:59 a.m. (noon) on Blackboard
No late acceptance
Fail to submit = 5 point reduction on your research paper
April 15 Final Research Paper
By 4/15 11:59 a.m (noon) on Blackboard
20 % of your final grade
Late submission = 5 point off per day
No longer accepted after one week
Key Requirement for Final Paper
• 4~6 page
• 12 pt. Times New Roman, double spaced, 1” margin
• Consistent formatting
• Research, description, AND analysis
1. Extent and quality of research
2. Analysis (use of research to make compelling arguments, the logical
sequential presentation of findings and recommendations, use of
subheadings to organize material and distinguish topical sections, etc.)
3. Quality of writing (strong introductory and concluding paragraphs,
correct spelling and grammar, short clear sentences, etc.)
4. Extent to which directions were followed (four-to-six pages in length,
double spacing, proper footnoting, submitted online prior to the
Pick the Topic
A good research question:
Is not too broad or too specific
Has a sufficient focus, so that it can be answered.
Key concepts should be clear.
Can be answered with the time, space, and information available
Topic related to our course
• The study about the cause of crime
• E.g., poverty, parenting, peer influence
• A social institution that has the mission of controlling crime by
detecting, detaining, adjudicating, and punishing and or
rehabilitating people who break the law
• The study of official response to the criminal behaviors
Police, law, juvenile justice, court, prosecutor, correction
Topic example (posted on blackboard)
Public outrage following the deaths of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri and other
minorities around the country have put a spotlight on the tension that often divides
the police and the community. Using data wherever possible, identify the principle
sources and extent of this mutual mistrust. You should then describe some of the
ways that various communities are trying to address the problem. Of the initiatives
that you studied, which one do you think is best? Be sure to take practical issues such
as expense and ease of implementation into consideration when making your
That time my cousin got pepper-sprayed when he was
already handcuffed in the back of a cop car
• Why excessive use of police force is more likely to affect communities of
color, and what police departments can do to change it.
• Why some neighborhoods are dangerous and hostile towards police, and
how police can manage to serve and protect them anyways.
• Does body-worn camera influence on the excessive use of police force?
The Thesis Statement
• Directly answers the questions asked
• Clear interpretation of the research
• 1-2 sentences long, probably near the end of the introduction
Example of Thesis
Prior literature focuses on positive human change and development accounting for gang
desistance. However, the impact of victimization on gang desistance is not well known.
It appears ironic that experiencing victimization, a negative life event, has a positive
correlation with gang desistance. Accordingly, the present study examines the
association between victimization and gang desistance. We expect that people who
have more violent victimization during gang membership is more likely to desist their
Example of Thesis
Juvenile justice highlights the rehabilitative needs of juvenile offenders. Rather than just focusing
punishment to their crime, juvenile justice is designed to provide opportunities to be rehabilitated for
juvenile offenders because juveniles are less mature and less responsible for their crime. Prior researches
have already proven that legal factors affect the juridical decision making in juvenile courts as well as
adult cases (Cauffman et al., 2007). Mental health factors in juvenile court, however, receive less
attention in criminal justice researches. The current examines the effect of mental health of defendants
on judicial decisions in juvenile court. This question mainly pictures the role of mental health evidence in
a judge’s discretionary decisions on the deposition.
Outline = Paper Organization
• Introduction & Thesis Statement
• Point 1
• Point 2
• Point 3
• At least three references
• What is an academic source?
Author: scholar or journalist?
Peer-reviewed journal articles
Official court records
Official government databases
Interviews with professionals or experts
Dissertations: master vs. PhD
• Non-academic or popular source that you may use
Popular magazine, high-quality mainstream news, reliable media source
Wikipedia is not acceptable!
One way to use wiki
Scroll down, follow links
Actual Court Brief!
• Google Scholar
• LexisNexis, EBSCOhost
• University Library
• Just because you found it at the library or on Google Scholar, that doesn’t mean
it’s always an academic source.
A Word on Plagiarism
• What is plagiarism?
“The uncredited use (both intentional or unintentional) of somebody else’s
words or ideas” (The OWL at Purdue).
• How to avoid it
When in doubt, cite it out!
• DON’T PLAGIARIZE
Make sure that you give credit for every idea!
If you use a direct quote, put it in quotes
Even if you paraphrase or summarize, cite source
– Use exact words of other paper
– Quotation marks + page number
Example: According to Warr (2002: p.140): “As with any truly good question in
science, however, a negative answer would be of no less value to the field
than an affirmative one.”
– Use your own words
– Provide reference, but not page number
Example: According to Warr (2002), an answer to a relevant research question
is interesting even when it is not affirmative.
• If you summarize information, you MUST cite the source!
• If you use a direct quote, you MUST cite the source!
• Every source cited in-text must appear in references
• Every source cited in references must appear in-text
APA Style Citation
A Work by Two Authors:
Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports…
(Wegener & Petty, 1994)
A Work by Three to Five Authors:
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)
In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” in the
signal phrase or in parentheses.
(Kernis et al., 1993)
Six or More Authors:
Harris et al. (2001) argued…
(Harris et al., 2001)
Organization as an Author:
According to the American Psychological Association (2000),…
Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses:
(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)
Reference page citation
• Do NOT trust online citation generators
If you use them, double-check the output
• The point is to ID the reference so that I can find it
Title of article
Name of journal or website
• If you can’t find those 4 things, it’s probably not an academic source
APA Reference page
Paper Outline due 03/09
•Address a research question
•List at least 3 sources you plan to use in research paper
In APA reference form
Campbell, M. A., & Schmidt, F. (2000). Comparison of mental health and legal factors
in the disposition outcome of young offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27(6),
Cappon, L., & Vander Laenen, F. (2011). The decision making process of juvenile
judges concerning minors with (out) mental disorders: a review of literature. EU
criminal justice, financial and economic crime: New perspectives, 277-262.
Cappon, L., & Vander Laenen, F. (2013). Mental health in juvenile judges’ decisionmaking: Review of literature. International journal of law and psychiatry, 36(1), 65-72.
Outline should be..
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