University of California Irvine How Are Traits Inherited Worksheet Lab Report Student Directions for On-line Module 10 (April 13 – 17, 2020) Before beginni

University of California Irvine How Are Traits Inherited Worksheet Lab Report Student Directions for On-line Module 10 (April 13 – 17, 2020) Before beginning this module,
Read through the entire laboratory investigation in your lab manual (pages 143-151).
Review Lecture 10 Inheritance Slides (with Audio).
Review Lecture 10 Tutorial (with Audio) to complete Exercises 1 – 3.
Follow along with these document (Student Instructions).
A modified lab report (Chapter 10 Inheritance Worksheet) is posted to Blackboard; it is different from the physical lab report manual to better align with the online module. You will complete these pages and submit as your lab report.
Remember, your answers should be your own. The policy on cheating and academic integrity still applies. Do not copy from your classmates.
Some activities and exercises require you to fill in Punnett squares. These are set up as tables that you can type your answers in. You do not need to turn in online, only for self study.
If you encounter any difficulties in filling out or submitting pages of your lab report, let your instructor know immediately.
MS Office 365 is now available to CPP students for free. Please visit the following page to download. You will have access to Word. https://www.cpp.edu/it/students/cppmsoffice.shtml

Activity 1: Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis. Fill out the table for this activity. Important resources to review before completing this table are:
Read pages 143 – 144 of Lab Manual
Lab 10 Inheritance lecture
Steps of Meiosis
Mitosis vs Meiosis: Side by Side Comparison
Activity 2: Practice filling out Punnett squares. Complete the series of Punnett squares. Important resources to review before completing this activity are
Read pages 145 – 146 of Lab Manual.
Lab 10 Inheritance lecture
Lab 10 Tutorial
For the Exercises 1 – 3, watch the Lab 10 Inheritance Tutorial on performing various types of monohybrid crosses and read the pages listed for each exercise. Exercise 1: Crosses Involving Autosomes. Complete the practice problems #1 – 3. Important resources to review before completing this activity are
Read pages 146 – 146 of Lab Manual.
Lab 10 Tutorial LAB INVESTIGATION 10: HOW ARE TRAITS INHERITED?
Student Directions for On-line Module 10 (April 13 – 17, 2020)
Before beginning this module,





Read through the entire laboratory investigation in your lab manual (pages 143-151).
Review Lecture 10 Inheritance Slides (with Audio).
Review Lecture 10 Tutorial (with Audio) to complete Exercises 1 – 3.
Follow along with these document (Student Instructions).
A modified lab report (Chapter 10 Inheritance Worksheet) is posted to Blackboard; it is different
from the physical lab report manual to better align with the online module. You will complete
these pages and submit as your lab report.
o Remember, your answers should be your own. The policy on cheating and academic
integrity still applies. Do not copy from your classmates.
o Some activities and exercises require you to fill in Punnett squares. These are set up as
tables that you can type your answers in. You do not need to turn in online, only for
self study.
o If you encounter any difficulties in filling out or submitting pages of your lab report, let
your instructor know immediately.
o MS Office 365 is now available to CPP students for free. Please visit the following page
to download. You will have access to Word.
https://www.cpp.edu/it/students/cppmsoffice.shtml
Activity 1: Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis. Fill out the table for this activity. Important resources to
review before completing this table are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Read pages 143 – 144 of Lab Manual
Lab 10 Inheritance lecture
Steps of Meiosis
Mitosis vs Meiosis: Side by Side Comparison
YouTube videos are hyperlinked here. To view,
hold down “Ctrl” and click on the blue hyperlink.
Activity 2: Practice filling out Punnett squares. Complete the series of Punnett squares. Important
resources to review before completing this activity are
1. Read pages 145 – 146 of Lab Manual.
2. Lab 10 Inheritance lecture
3. Lab 10 Tutorial
For the Exercises 1 – 3, watch the Lab 10 Inheritance Tutorial on performing various types of monohybrid
crosses and read the pages listed for each exercise.
Exercise 1: Crosses Involving Autosomes. Complete the practice problems #1 – 3. Important resources
to review before completing this activity are
1. Read pages 146 – 146 of Lab Manual.
2. Lab 10 Tutorial
Exercise 2: Sex-Linked Traits. Read pages 148-149 in your Lab Manual. To complete this activity:
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MVM 4/6/20
1. Determine whether or not you are red/green colorblind by taking the 8 plate Ishihara test
for color vision here: http://www.colorvisiontesting.com/ishihara/pipdemoq
a. The first plate is the Demonstration Plate and does not count as one of the 8 test
plates. Click through the 8 test plates and keep track of how many you identified
correctly.
b. There is an alternative test specifically for disabled persons and children. If you
would like to take this test instead of the one above, go to this website:
http://www.colorvisiontesting.com/online-test/demonstration-plate. This test also
starts with a Demonstration Plate, and then you can click through 3 more plates to
determine whether or not you are red/green colorblind.
2. Complete practice problems #1 -2. Note that crosses involving sex-linked traits are written in
a different format than those involving autosomes. First, the sex of the female is designated
as XX, and the sex of the male is designated as XY. Alleles are then added to the X
chromosomes as superscripts; the Y chromosome never carries a superscript because alleles
are absent on this chromosome. For example, if a male carries a dominant allele “D”, this is
symbolized as XDY. If a female carries both the dominant and recessive alleles “D” and “d”
(i.e. she is heterozygous), this is symbolized as XDXd. In order to make a letter a superscript
in Word, highlight the letter and then hold down the “Ctrl”, “Shift”, and “+=” keys.
3. OPTIONAL: Experience how the world looks to a person with severe red/green color
blindness by visiting this website: http://www.neitzvision.com/the-basics/color-blind-world/
Exercise 3: Investigating Human Traits. Read to pages 151-152 in your Lab Manual before beginning
Exercise 3.

Determine your phenotype for each trait listed in Table 10.2, except the PTC tasting. Use the
pictures on the last page of the Student Instructions to determine if you are dominant or
recessive for each trait. Since you will not have the ability to know if you are homozygous
dominant of heterozygous for traits where your phenotype is dominant, assume heterozygous
for those genotypes.
• Once you have determined your phenotype for the above traits, circle, highlight, or take note of
the genotype that corresponds to your phenotype in Table 10.2. If you express the recessive
trait, your genotype is homozygous recessive. However, if you express the dominant trait,
assume you are heterozygous. Transfer your genotypes and phenotypes to Table 10.3 in the
“Your Genotype” column.
• Class data collected and compiled of phenotypic ratios from previous semesters are shown in
Table 10.2 in the highlighted column. Use this information to answer questions # 1a – d, 2a-b
that follow Table 10.2.
Having determined your phenotype and genotype for the traits described in Table 10.2, you will move
on to completing the experimental simulation that will address the question below:
Question: What effect does random assortment and recombination have on genetic variation among
offspring?
To complete this activity,
Step 1: Begin by determining the hypothesis, prediction and record on page 155.
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MVM 4/6/20
Example of a null hypothesis: Random assortment and recombination has no effect on genetic variation
among offspring.
Example of an alternate: Random assortment and recombination will increase genetic diversity among
offspring.
Step 2: Obtain 7 strips of paper; each one represents a chromosome. Write your initials on both sides of
each strip of paper. Assign a trait from Table 10.2 to each strip of paper by writing the name of
the trait on both sides of the strip of paper. You should now have one strip of paper for each of
the seven traits.
Step 3: Now transfer your genotype for each trait to the corresponding strip of paper, but only write
one allele per side. For example, if you are heterozygous for the earlobes trait, you will write an
uppercase “E” on one side of the paper strip labeled “Earlobes” and a lowercase “e” on the
other side of that paper strip (see the picture provided on page 153 in your Lab Manual for a
visual reference).
Step 4: Now that you have your 7 chromosomes (paper strips) labeled, you will create another set of 7
strips of paper to represent your partner’s chromosomes. If you are male (XY), use the female
set of traits provided. If you are female (XX), use the male set of traits provided. In order to
distinguish these strips of paper from your own, do not write your initials on these strips. Fill in
your partner’s genotypes in Table 10.3 in the “Your Partner’s Genotype” column.
Choose these phenotypes and genotypes
if you have XY sex chromosomes
Choose these phenotypes and genotypes
if you have XX sex chromosomes
Trait
Phenotype
Genotypes
Phenotype
Genotype
Earlobes
Free
Ee
Attached
ee
Hairline
No peak
ww
Widow’s peak
Ww
Tongue
Unable to roll
rr
Able to roll
Rr
Hitchhiker’s Thumb
No 90 bend
o
Hh
Bends 90
Little Finger
Straight
bb
Bent
Bb
Mid-Digits
Hairy
Mm
Hairless
mm
Sex
Female
XX
Male
XY
o
hh
Step 5: Simulate gametogenesis (formation of gametes) by tossing your and your partner’s
chromosomes (paper strips) in the air and letting them fall to the ground. The side of each
chromosome that faces up represents the one chromosome out of each pair that made it into a
successful gamete (i.e. a gamete that will contribute to the creation of a new offspring). You will
record only the allele information from the side that is facing up.
Step 6: Simulate fertilization and conception by pairing up your chromosomes with your partner’s, and
record the resulting genotypes and phenotypes in the First Offspring column of Table 10.3.
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MVM 4/6/20
Step 7: Repeat steps 5 – 6 to fill in the Second Offspring column of Table 10.3.
Step 8: Use the data from Table 10.3 to complete the Table 10.4. Compare the genotypes and
phenotypes of all four individuals in the table (you, your partner, and your two offspring).
Record the number of traits that were phenotypically and/or genotypically identical between
individuals. Use the data in these two tables to draw conclusions about your hypothesis and
complete Part II of the lab report.
Lab Report Submission:
You can submit your completed Lab Report 10 (page 155-160) as a Word document to the link provided
in Assignments on Blackboard. If you encounter difficulties submitting this way contact your instructor
about other submission option. Due by 11:59pm on Friday, April 17.
Pictures of Traits listed in Table 10.2 for your reference.
4
MVM 4/6/20
LAB 10
TUTORIAL
BIO 1110L
Prepared by Jonathan Guo and Luis Torres; Narrated by Luis Torres
RECAP: GENOTYPES, PHENOTYPES, AND ALLELES
◦ Allele is a form of a gene and is categorized as dominant allele or recessive allele.
◦ Generally, a dominant allele is designated with a “capital” letter (like H) and a recessive allele is
designated with a “lowercase” letter (like h).
◦ Genotype generally refers to an allele combination.
◦ Since you were made by mom and dad, you inherited two chromosomes from them and, therefore,
inherited two similar genes.
◦ HH is a genotype and is considered homozygous dominant
◦ Hh is a genotype and is considered heterozygous (containing a dominant and recessive allele) –
usually called carriers
◦ Hh is a genotype and is considered homozygous recessive
◦ Phenotype is the outward manifestation or expression of an individual’s genotype.
HOW TO DO A PUNNET SQUARE?
◦ Punnet Squares show possible genotypic outcomes when two individuals sexually reproduce.
Mom’s genotype (AA)
a
A
Dad’s genotype (Aa)
A
A
THE SET UP
HOW TO DO A PUNNET SQUARES
A
A
a
A
A
A
a
a
AA
Aa
AA
Aa
A
A
a
• The alleles on the top of the punnet
square go to the boxes directly below
A
• The alleles on the side of the punnet
square go to the boxes directly
adjacent.
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
Complete the following Punnet Squares
B
B
R
b
R
b
r
r
ANSWERS
B
Bb
B
Bb
r
RR
Rr
Rr
rr
R
b
Bb
b
R
Bb
r
EXERCISE 1: CROSSES INVOLVING AUTOSOMES
Albinism is a condition where there is a defect in a gene that makes enzymes necessary for pigmentation,
resulting in white skin and hair. Albinism is caused by recessive allele (n) and, therefore, the genotype of
an albino is nn.
1. An albino man, whose parents are both normally pigmented, marries a normally pigmented woman.
They have one child, an albino daughter. List the genotypes of all the persons mentioned. (On page
147 of Lab Manual)
Genotype of the man: nn
Genotype of his parents:
Genotype of the woman:
Genotype of the child: nn
EXPLANATION
Since we know that the man and his child are albino,
we know that they must be homozygous recessive (nn).
Being either homozygous dominant or heterozygous
would not result in a phenotype displaying albinism.
EXERCISE 1
Albinism is a condition where there is a defect in a gene that makes enzymes necessary for pigmentation,
resulting in white skin and hair. Albinism is caused by recessive allele (n) and, therefore, the genotype of
an albino is nn.
1. An albino man, whose parents are both normally pigmented, marries a normally pigmented woman.
They have one child, an albino daughter. List the genotypes of all the persons mentioned. (On page
147 of Lab Manual)
Genotype of the man:
Genotype of his parents: Nn
Genotype of the woman: Nn
Genotype of the child:
EXPLANATION
• The parent’s have to be carriers to produce an albino child.
• Since we know that the daughter produced is an albino, we know that
the woman is heterozygous as it would be an impossibility to produce
an albino if the woman was homozygous dominant.
EXERCISE 1
Could this couple produce a pigmented offspring? Why or why not?
n
N
n
n
EXERCISE 1
2. Huntington’s Disease is a degenerative brain disorder caused by an autosomal dominant allele (H). The disease begins
to manifest itself early in middle age, often after the individual has already produced children. As the disease progresses,
the individual loses control over movement, speech, reason, and thinking. There is no effect treatment or cure, and
eventually full time care is required. Suppose a woman who has no history of Huntington’s disease in her family marries a
man whose father died of Huntington’s disease but whose mother is disease-free. They produced a single child. However,
by the time the child is 18, the father has begun to show early signs of Huntington’s disease. The family is devastated.
What is the probability that their child will be stricken with the disease later in life? (On page 148)
The first thing to do when tackling these types of problems is to identify what we know:
• Disease is dominant,
• woman is likely homozygous recessive (hh) since there is no disease that runs in her family
• We know that the man’s mother is hh and the father who was affected could be HH or Hh.
• But since we know that the man demonstrates early signs of Huntington’s disease, it narrows down the
genotype to Hh
EXERCISE 1
We do a punnet square to see the probability that their child will be stricken with the disease later in life.
We know that the man has a genotype of Hh and the woman has the genotype of hh.
H
h
Hh
hh
Hh
hh
h
h
EXERCISE 1
3. It happens that the length of the big toe is determined by a single gene pair and that big toes equal to
or longer than the second toes is the recessive condition (t). Presuming that your big toes are longer
than your second toes and your fiancé also has long big toes, what are the chances that you offspring
will have short big toes, i.e. big toes that are shorter than the second toes?
Complete the punnet square to answer the question.
What do we know?
EXERCISE 2: SEX-LINKED TRAITS
Of our 23 pairs of chromosomes, one pair are sex chromosomes and are designated as X or Y
chromosome where XX designates females and XY designates male. There are genes on these
chromosomes and are, therefore, sex-linked.
Red/Green colorblindness is a sex-linked recessive allele (n) carried on the X chromosome. About 10% of
all men in the United States express the trait colorblindness.
Use the following link to determine whether or not you are colorblind.

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Demonstration Plate


How many did you correctly identify?
EXERCISE 2
To help distinguish between alleles and sexes, when sex-linked traits are involved we will use a superscript of the
dominant or recessive allele on the chromosome it is on. For example, XDY would be a dominant phenotype
male since the Y chromosome does not hold this gene. (This will be the assumption for all sex-linked punnet
squares we tackle.) XDXd would be heterozygous female, XDXD would be a homozygous dominant female, and
XdXd would be a homozygous recessive female. (On page 149)
1. Will a man inherit a sex-linked trait from his father or from his mother? Why is this the case?
XD
XD
XD
Y
EXERCISE 2
2. A man with normal vision marries a woman who has normal vision but whose father was colorblind.
a. What percentage of their sons are likely to be colorblind?
b. What percentage of their daughters are likely to be colorblind?
c. Who will be the carriers of the colorblind allele, sons or daughters?
EXERCISE 2
2. A man with normal vision marries a woman who has normal vision but whose father was colorblind.
a. What percentage of their sons are likely to be colorblind?
b. What percentage of their daughters are likely to be colorblind?
c. Who will be the carriers of the colorblind allele, sons or daughters?
DAD
XD
MOM
What do we know?
• If a man has normal vision, we know that he has a
dominant allele on his X chromosome (XDY).
• Since the woman has normal vision, but her dad was
colorblind, we know that she is a carrier.
Xd
Xd
Y
XDXd
XDY
XdXd
XdY
EXERCISE 2
Y
XD
XDXD
XDY
XDXd
XdY
XD
Xd
EXPLANTION
• From the punnet square, we can
see that only 50% of the sons
produced will be colorblind.
• None of the daughters are going
to be colorblind.
• However, there is a 50% that the
daughters made will be carriers.
10
INHERITANCE WORKSHEET
GENETIC VARIATION
Page 144: Comparing mitosis and meiosis
MITOSIS
MEIOSIS
Where do these types of divisions occur?
How many divisions occur?
How many daughter cells are produced?
What types of cells are produced?
Are daughter cells haploid or diploid?
Does pairing (synapsis) of homologous
chromosomes occur?
Does crossing over (exchange) occur?
Are daughter cells genetically identical?
Which type of reproductive strategy (asex. or
sexual) does this type of division support?
TRAITS DETERMINED BY SINGLE GENE PAIRS
Page 145: Using Punnett squares to predict genotypes.
Complete the following series of Punnett squares representing crosses between different parental
genotypes. Did your results match with genotypic and phenotypic ratios provided in Table 10.1?
A
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
a
A
A
A
a
A
a
a
a
A
A
a
© kbhartney. Reproduced with permission from Hayden-McNeil/Macmillan Learning Curriculum Solutions (S20 only)
a
■ LIFE SCIENCE LABORATORY
EXERCISE 1: CROSSES INVOLVING AUTOSOMES
Pages 147-148: Solve problems 1 – 3 below. Show your work. Explain your answers.
1. An albino man, whose parents are both normally pigmented, marries a normally pigmented woman.
They have one child, an albino daughter. List the genotypes of all the person mentioned.
genotype of the man ______________________
genotypes of his parents ___________________
genotype of the woman ____________________
genotype of the child ______________________
Could this couple produce a normally pigmented offspring? __________ Why or why not?
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
2. Huntington’s Disease is a degenerative brain disorder caused by an autosomal dominant allele (H).
The disease begins to manifest itself early in middle age, often after the individual has already
produced children. As the disease progresses, the individual loses control over movement, speech,
reason, and thinking. There is no effective treatment or cure, and eventually full-time care is
required. Suppose a woman who has no history of Huntington’s Disease in her family marries a man
whose father died of Huntington’s Disease but whose mother is disease-free. They produce a single
child. However, by the time the child is 18, the father has begun to show early signs of Huntington’s
Disease. The family is devastated. What is the probability that their child will be stricken with the
disease later in life?
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
3. It happens that the length of the big toe is determined by a single gene pair and that big toes equal to
or longer than second toes is the recessive condition (t). Presuming that your big toes are longer
than your second toes and your fiancé also has long big toes, what are the chances that your
offspring will have short big toes, i.e. big toes that are shorter than the second toes?
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_________________________________…
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